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Chapter 4. Windows NT Domains

In previous chapters, we've focused on workgroup networking to keep things simple and introduce you to networking with Samba in the most painless manner we could find. However, workgroup computing has its drawbacks, and for many computing environments, the greater security and single logon of the Windows NT domain make it worthwhile to spend the extra effort to implement a domain.

In addition to the domain features of that we discussed in Chapter 1, having a domain makes it possible to use logon scripts and roaming profiles (also called roving profiles). A logon script is a text file of commands that are run during startup, and a profile is a collection of information regarding the desktop environment, including the contents of the Start menu, icons that appear on the desktop, and other characteristics about the GUI environment that users are allowed to customize. A roaming profile can follow its owner from computer to computer, allowing her to have the same familiar interface appear wherever she logs on.

A Windows NT domain offers centralized control over the network. Policies can be set up by an administrator to define aspects of the users' environment and limit the amount of control they have over the network and their computers. It is also possible for administrators to perform remote administration of the domain controllers from any Windows NT/2000/XP workstation.

Samba 2.2 has the ability to act as a primary domain controller, supporting domain logons from Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP computers and allowing Windows NT/2000/XP[1] systems to join the domain as domain member servers. Samba can also join a domain as a member server, allowing the primary domain controller to be a Windows NT/2000 system or another Samba server.

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Samba 2.2 does not support LDAP and Kerberos authentication of Active Directory, so it cannot act as a Windows 2000 Active Directory domain controller. However, Samba can be added to an Active Directory domain as a member server, with the Windows 2000 domain controllers running in either mixed or native mode. The Windows 2000 server (even if it is running in native mode) supports the Samba server by acting as a PDC emulator, using the Windows NT style of authentication rather than the Kerberos style.

If you're adding a Samba server to a network that has already been set up, you won't have to decide whether to use a workgroup or a domain; you will simply have to be compatible with what's already in place. If you do have a choice, we suggest you evaluate both workgroup and domain computing carefully before rolling out a big installation. You will have a lot of work to do if you later need to convert one to the other. One last thought on this matter is that Microsoft is developing Windows in the direction of increased use of domains and is intending that eventually Windows networks be composed solely of Active Directory domains. If you implement a Windows NT domain now, you'll be in a better position to transition to Active Directory later, after Samba has better support for it.

In this chapter, we cover various topics directly related to using Samba in a Windows NT domain, including:

Samba as the Primary Domain Controller

Samba 2.2 is able to handle the most desired functions of a primary domain controller in a Windows NT domain, handling domain logons and authentication for accessing shared resources, as well as supporting logon scripts, roaming profiles, and system policies.

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You will need to use at least Samba 2.2 to ensure that PDC functionality for Windows NT/2000/XP clients is present. Prior to Samba 2.2, only limited user authentication for NT clients was present.

In this section, we will show you how to configure Samba as a PDC for use with Windows 95/98/Me and Windows NT/2000/XP clients. The two groups of Windows versions interact differently within domains, and in some cases are supported in slightly different ways. If you know you are going to be using only Windows 95/98/Me or Windows NT/2000/XP, you can set up Samba to support only that group. However, there isn't any harm in supporting both at the same time.

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If you would like more information on how to set up domains, see the file Samba-PDC-HOWTO.html in the docs/htmldocs directory of the Samba source distribution.

Samba must be the only domain controller for the domain. Make sure that a PDC isn't already active, and that there are no backup domain controllers. Samba 2.2 is not able to communicate with backup domain controllers, and having domain controllers in your domain with unsynchronized data would result in a very dysfunctional network.

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Although Samba 2.2 cannot function as, or work with, a Windows NT BDC, it is possible to set up another Samba server to act as a backup for a Samba PDC. For further information, see the file Samba-BDC-HOWTO.html in the docs/htmldocs directory of the Samba source distribution.

Configuring Samba to be a PDC is a matter of modifying the smb.conf file, creating some directories, and restarting the server.

Modifying smb.conf

First you will need to start with an smb.conf file that correctly configures Samba for workgroup computing, such as the one we created in Chapter 2, and insert the following lines into the [global] section:

[global]
    ; use the name of your Samba server instead of toltec
    ; and your own workgroup instead of METRAN
    netbios name = toltec
    workgroup = METRAN
    encrypt passwords = yes
        
    domain master = yes
    local master = yes
    preferred master = yes
    os level = 65

    security = user
    domain logons = yes
    
    ; logon path tells Samba where to put Windows NT/2000/XP roaming profiles
    logon path = \\%L\profiles\%u\%m
    logon script = logon.bat

    logon drive = H:
    ; logon home is used to specify home directory and
    ; Windows 95/98/Me roaming profile location
    logon home = \\%L\%u\.win_profile\%m
    
    time server = yes

    ; instead of jay, use the names of all users in the Windows NT/2000/XP
    ; Administrators group who log on to the domain
    domain admin group = root jay

    ; the below works on Red Hat Linux - other OSs might need a different command
    add user script = /usr/sbin/useradd -d /dev/null -g 100 -s /bin/false -M %u

And after the [global] section, add these three new shares:

[netlogon]
    path = /usr/local/samba/lib/netlogon
    writable = no
    browsable = no

[profiles]
    ; you might wish to use a different directory for your
    ; Windows NT/2000/XP roaming profiles
    path = /home/samba-ntprof
    browsable = no
    writable = yes
    create mask = 0600
    directory mask = 0700

[homes]
    read only = no
    browsable = no
    guest ok = no
    map archive = yes

Now for the explanation. If you are comparing this example to the configuration file presented in Chapter 2, you will notice that the first three parameter settings are similar. We start out in the [global] section by setting the NetBIOS name of the Samba server. We are using the default, which is the DNS hostname, but are being explicit because the NetBIOS name is used in UNCs that appear later in smb.conf. The next two lines, setting the workgroup name and choosing to use encrypted passwords, are identical to our smb.conf file from Chapter 2. However, things are now a little different: even though it still reads "workgroup", we are actually setting the name of the domain. For a workgroup, using encrypted passwords is optional; when using a domain, they are required.

The next four lines set up our Samba PDC to handle browsing services. The line domain master = yes causes Samba to be the domain master browser, which handles browsing services for the domain across multiple subnets if necessary. Although it looks very similar, local master = yes does not cause Samba to be the master browser on the subnet, but merely tells it to participate in browser elections and allow itself to win. (These two lines are yet more default settings that we include to be clear.) The next two lines ensure that Samba wins the elections. Setting the preferred master parameter makes Samba force an election when it starts up. The os level parameter is set higher than that of any other system, which results in Samba winning that election. (At the time of this writing, an os level of 65 was sufficient to win over all versions of Windows—but make sure no other Samba server is set higher!) We make sure Samba is both the domain and local master browser because Windows NT/2000 PDCs always reserve the domain master browser role for themselves and because Windows clients require things to be that way to find the primary domain controller. It is possible to allow another computer on the network to win the role of local master browser, but having the same server act as both domain and local masters is simpler and more efficient.

The next two lines in the [global] section set up Samba to handle the actual domain logons. We set security = user so that Samba will require a username and password. This is actually the same as in the workgroup setup we covered in Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 because it is the default. The only reason we're including it explicitly is to avoid confusion: another valid setting is security = domain, but that is for having another (Windows or Samba) domain controller handle the logons and should never be found in the smb.conf of a Samba PDC. The next line, domain logons = yes, is what tells Samba we want this server to handle domain logons.

Defining a logon path is necessary for supporting roaming profiles for Windows NT/2000/XP clients. The UNC \\%L\profiles\%u refers to a share held on the Samba server where the profiles are kept. The variables %L and %u are replaced by Samba with the name of the server and the username of the logged on user, respectively. The section in smb.conf defining the [profiles] share contains the definition of exactly where the profiles are kept on the server. We'll get back to this topic a bit later in this chapter.

The logon script = logon.bat line specifies the name of an MS-DOS batch file that will be executed when the client logs on to the domain. The path specified here is relative to the [netlogon] share that is defined later in the smb.conf file.

The settings of logon drive and logon home have a couple of purposes. Setting logon drive = H: allows the home directory of the user to be connected to drive letter H on the client. The logon home parameter is set to the location of the home directory on the server, and again, %u is replaced at runtime by the logged on user's username. The home directory is used to store roaming profiles for Windows 95/98/Me clients. These parameters tie into the [homes] share that we are adding, as we will explain a bit later.

Setting time server = yes causes Samba to advertise itself as a time service for the network. This is optional.

The domain admin group parameter exists as a short-term measure in Samba 2.2 to give Samba a list of users who have administrative privileges in the domain. The list should contain any Samba users who log on from Windows NT/2000/XP systems and are members of the Administrators or Domain Admins groups, if roaming profiles are to work correctly.

The last parameter to add to the [global] section is add user script, and you will need it only if one or more of your clients is a Windows NT/2000/XP system. We will tell you more about this in Section 4.2 later in this chapter.

The rest of the additions to smb.conf are the definitions for three shares. The [netlogon] share is necessary for Samba to handle domain logons because Windows clients need to connect to it during the logon process and will fail if the share does not exist. Other than that, the only function of [netlogon] is to be a repository for logon scripts and system-policy files, which we shall cover in detail later in this chapter. The path to a directory on the Samba server is given, and because the clients only read logon scripts and system-policy files from the share, the writable = no definition is used to make the share read-only. Users do not need to see the share, so we set browsable = no to make the share invisible.

The [profiles] share is needed for use with Windows NT/2000/XP roaming profiles. The path points to a directory on the Samba server where the profiles are kept, and in this case, the clients must be able to read and write the profile data. The create mask (read and write permitted for the owner only) and directory mask (read, write, and search permitted for the owner only) are set up such that a user's profile data can be read and written only by the user and not accessed or modified by anyone else.

The [homes] share is necessary for our definitions of logon drive and logon home to work. Samba uses the [homes] share to add the home directory of the user (found in /etc/passwd ) as a share. Instead of appearing as "homes", the share will be accessible on the client through a folder having the same name as the user's username. We will cover this topic in more detail in Chapter 9.

At this point, you might want to run testparm to check your smb.conf file.

Adding Computer Accounts

To interact in a domain, a Windows NT/2000/XP system must be a member of the domain. Domain membership is implemented using computer accounts, which are similar to user accounts and allow a domain controller to keep information with which to authenticate computers on the network. That is, the domain controller must be able to tell if requests that arrive from a computer are coming from a computer that it "knows" as being part of the domain. Each Windows NT/2000/XP system in the domain has a computer account in the domain controllers' database, which on a Windows NT/2000 hosted domain is the SAM database. Although Samba uses a different method (involving the smbpasswd file), it also treats computer accounts similarly to user accounts.

To create a computer account, an administrator configures a Windows NT/2000/XP system to be part of the domain. For Samba 2.2, the "domain administrator" is the root account on the Samba server, and you will need to run the command:

# smbpasswd -a root

to add the root user to Samba's password database. In this case, do not provide smbpasswd with the same password as the actual root account on the server. Create a different password to be used solely for creating computer accounts. This will reduce the possibility of compromising the root password.

When the computer account is created, two things must happen on the Samba server. An entry is added to the smbpasswd file, with a "username" that is the NetBIOS name of the computer with a dollar sign ($) appended to it. This part is handled by the smbpasswd command, and you do not need to perform any additional action to implement it.

With Samba 2.2, an entry is also required in the /etc/passwd file[2] to give the computer account a user ID (UID) on the Samba server.

This account will never be used to log in to the Unix system, so it should not be given a valid home directory or login shell. To make this part work, you must set the add user script parameter in your Samba configuration file, using a command that adds the entry in the proper manner. On our Red Hat Linux system, we set add user script to:

/usr/sbin/useradd -d /dev/null -g 100 -s /bin/false -M %u

This command adds an entry in /etc/passwd similar to the following:

aztec$:x:505:100::/dev/null:/bin/false

Again, notice that the username ends in a dollar sign. The user account shown has a "home directory" of /dev/null, a group ID (GID) of 100, and a "login shell" of /bin/false. The -M flag in our useradd command prevents it from creating the home directory. Samba replaces the %u variable in the useradd command with the NetBIOS name of the computer, including the trailing dollar sign. The basic idea here is to create an entry with a valid username and UID. These are the only parts that Samba uses. It is important that the UID be unique, not also used for other accounts—especially ones that are associated with Samba users.

If you are using some other variety of Unix, you will need to replace our useradd command with a command that performs the same function on your system. If a command such as useradd does not come with your system, you can write a shell script yourself that performs the same function. In any case, the command should add a password hash that does not correspond to any valid password. For example, in the /etc/shadow file of our Linux server, we find the following two lines:

jay:%1%zQ7j7ok8$D/IubyRAY5ovM3bTrpUCn1:11566:0:99999:7:::
zapotec$:!!:11625:0:99999:7:::

The first line is for jay's user account. The second field is the password hash—the long string between the first and second colons. The second line is for the computer account of zapotec, a domain member server. Its "username" ends with a dollar sign ($), and the second field in this case has been set to "!!", which is an arbitrary string not produced from any password. Therefore, there is no valid password for this account on the Linux host. Just about any ASCII string can be used instead of "!!". For example, you could use "DISABLED" instead.

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It is possible to create the entries for /etc/passwd and smbpasswd manually; however, we suggest this method be used very carefully, and only for initial testing, or as a last resort. The reason for this is to maintain security. After the computer account has been created on the server, the next Windows NT/2000/XP system on the network with a matching NetBIOS name to log on to the domain will be associated with this account. This allows crackers a window of opportunity to take over computer accounts for their own purposes.

Configuring Windows Clients for Domain Logons

The client-side configuration for Windows clients is really simple. All you have to do is switch from workgroup to domain networking by enabling domain logons, and in the case of Windows NT/2000/XP, also provide the root password you gave smbpasswd for creating computer accounts. This results in the Windows NT/2000/XP system becoming a member of the domain.

User-Level Security for Windows 95/98/Me

Now that you have a primary domain controller to authenticate users, you can implement much better security for shares that reside on Windows 95/98/Me systems.[3] To enable this functionality, open the Control Panel, double-click the Network icon, and click the Access Control tab in the dialog box. The window should now look like Figure 4-2.

Figure 4-2. Setting user-level access control

Click the User-level access control radio button, and type in the name of your domain in the text area. Click the OK button. If you get the dialog box shown in Figure 4-3, it means that shares are already on the system.

Figure 4-3. Error dialog while changing to user-level access control

In that case, you might want to cancel the operation and make a record of each of the computer's shares, making it easier to re-create them, and then redo this part. (To get a list of shares, open an MS-DOS prompt window and run the net view \\computer_name command.) Otherwise, you will get a message asking you to reboot to put the change in configuration into effect.

After rebooting, you can create shares with user-level access control. To do this, right-click the folder you wish to share, and select Sharing.... This will bring up the Shared Properties dialog box, shown in Figure 4-4.

Figure 4-4. The Shared Properties dialog

Click the Shared As: radio button, and give the share a name and comment. Then click the Add... button, and you will see the Add Users dialog box, shown in Figure 4-5.

Figure 4-5. The Add Users dialog

What has happened is that Windows has contacted the primary domain controller (in this case, Samba) and requested a list of domain users and groups. You can now select a user or group and add it to one or more of the three lists on the righthand side of the window—for Read Only, Full Access, or Custom Control—by clicking the buttons in the middle of the window. When you are done, click the OK button. If you added any users or groups to the Custom Control list, you will be presented with the Change Access Rights dialog box, shown in Figure 4-6, in which you can specify the rights you wish to allow. Then click the OK button to close the dialog box.

Figure 4-6. The Change Access Rights dialog

You are now returned to the Shared Properties dialog box, where you will see the Name: and Access Rights: columns filled in with the permissions that you just created. Click the OK button to finalize the process. Remember, you will have to perform these actions on any folders that you had previously shared using share-level security.

Windows NT 4.0

To configure Windows NT for domain logons, log in to the computer as Administrator or another user in the Administrators group, open the Control Panel, and double-click the Network icon. If it isn't already selected, click on the Network Identification tab.

Click the Change... button, and you should see the dialog box shown in Figure 4-7. In this dialog box, you can choose to have the Windows NT client become a member of the domain by clicking the checkbox marked Domain: in the Member of box. Then type in the name of the domain to which you wish the client to log on; it should be the same as the one you specified using the workgroup parameter in the Samba configuration file. Click the checkbox marked Create a Computer Account in the Domain, and fill in "root" for the text area labeled User Name:. In the Password: text area, fill in the root password you gave smbpasswd for creating computer accounts.

Figure 4-7. Configuring a Windows NT client for domain logons

WARNING

If Windows complains that you are already logged in, you probably have an active connection to a share in the workgroup (such as a mapped network drive). Disconnect the resource temporarily by right-clicking its icon and choosing the Disconnect pop-up menu item.

After you press the OK button, Windows should present you with a small dialog box welcoming you to the domain. Click the Close button in the Network dialog box, and reboot the computer as requested. When the system comes up again, the machine will automatically present you with a logon screen similar to the one for Windows 95/98/Me clients, except that the domain text area has a drop-down menu so that you can opt to log on to either the local system or the domain. Make sure your domain is selected, and log on to the domain using any Samba-enabled user account on the Samba server.

WARNING

Be sure to select the correct domain in the Windows NT logon dialog box. Once it is selected, it might take a moment for Windows NT to build the list of available domains.

After you enter the password, Windows NT should consult the primary domain controller (Samba) to see if the password is correct. Again, you can check the log files if you want to see this in action. If it worked, you have successfully configured Samba to act as a domain controller for Windows NT machines.

Windows 2000

To configure Windows 2000 for domain logons, log in to the computer as Administrator or another user in the Administrators group, open the Control Panel, and double-click the System icon to open the System Properties dialog box. Click the Network Identification tab, and then click the Properties button. You should now see the Identification Changes dialog box shown in Figure 4-8.

Figure 4-8. The Identification Changes dialog

Click the radio button labeled "Domain:" and fill in the name of your domain in the text-entry area. Then click the OK button. This will bring up the Domain Username and Password dialog box. Enter "root" for the username. For the password, use the password that you gave to smbpasswd for the root account.

WARNING

If Windows complains that you are already logged in, you probably have an active connection to a share in the workgroup (such as a mapped network drive). Disconnect the resource temporarily by right-clicking its icon and choosing the Disconnect pop-up menu item.

After you press the OK button, Windows should present you with a small dialog box welcoming you to the domain. When you click the OK button in this dialog box, you will be told that you need to reboot the computer. Click the OK button in the System Properties dialog box, and reboot the computer as requested. When the system comes up again, the machine will automatically present you with a Log On to Windows dialog box similar to the one shown in Figure 4-9.

Figure 4-9. The Windows 2000 logon window

If you do not see the Log on to: drop-down menu, click the Options << button and it will appear. Select your domain, rather than the local computer, from the menu.

WARNING

Be sure to select the correct domain in the logon dialog box. Once it is selected, it might take a moment for Windows to build the list of available domains.

Enter the username and password of any Samba-enabled user in the User name: and Password: fields, and either press the Enter key or click the OK button. If it worked, your Windows session will start up with no error dialogs.

Windows XP Professional

To configure Windows XP Professional for domain logons, log in to the computer as Administrator or another user in the Administrators group, open the Control Panel in Classic View, and double-click the System icon to open the System Properties dialog box. Click the Computer Name tab and then click the Change... button. You should now see the Computer Name Changes dialog box shown in Figure 4-10.

Figure 4-10. The Computer Name Changes dialog

Click the radio button labeled "Domain:", and fill in the name of your domain in the text-entry area. Then click the OK button. This will bring up the Domain Username and Password dialog box. Enter "root" for the username. For the password, use the password that you gave to smbpasswd for the root account.

WARNING

If Windows complains that you are already logged in, you probably have an active connection to a share in the workgroup (such as a mapped network drive). Disconnect the resource temporarily by right-clicking its icon and choosing the Disconnect pop-up menu item.

After you press the OK button, Windows should present you with a small dialog box welcoming you to the domain. When you click the OK button in this dialog box, you will be told that you need to reboot the computer to put the changes into effect. Click the OK buttons in the dialog boxes to close them, and reboot the computer as requested. When the system comes up again, the machine will automatically present you with a Log On to Windows dialog box similar to the one shown in Figure 4-11.

Figure 4-11. The Windows XP logon window

If you get a dialog box at this point that tells you the domain controller cannot be found, the solution is to change a registry setting as follows.

Open the Start Menu and click the Run... menu item. In the text area in the dialog box that opens, type in "regedit" and click the OK button to start the Registry Editor. You will be editing the registry, so follow the rest of the directions very carefully. Click the "+" button next to the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE folder, and in the contents that open up, click the "+" button next to the SYSTEM folder. Continue in the same manner to open CurrentControlSet, then Services, then Netlogon. (You will have to scroll down many times to find Netlogon in the list of services.) Then click the Parameters folder, and you will see items appear in the right side of the window. Double-click "requiresignorseal", and a dialog box will open. In the Value data: text area, change the "1" to a "0" (zero), and click the OK button, which modifies the registry both in memory and on disk. Now close the Registry Editor and log off and back on again.

If you do not see the Log on to: drop-down menu, click the Options << button and it will appear. Select your domain from the menu, rather than the local computer.

WARNING

Be sure to select the correct domain in the logon dialog box. Once it is selected, it might take a moment for Windows to build the list of available domains.

Enter the username and password of any Samba-enabled user in the User name: and Password: fields, and either press the Enter key or click the OK button. If it worked, your Windows session will start up with no error dialogs.

Logon Scripts

After a Windows client connects with a domain controller (either to authenticate a user, in the case of Windows 95/98/Me, or to log on to the domain, in the case of Windows NT/2000/XP), the client downloads an MS-DOS batch file to run. The domain controller supplies the file assuming one has been made available for it. This batch file is the logon script and is useful in setting up an initial environment for the user.

In a Unix environment, the ability to run such a script might lead to a very complex initialization and deep customization. However, the Windows environment is mainly oriented to the GUI, and the command-line functions are more limited. Most commonly, the logon script is used to run a net command, such as net use, to connect a network drive letter, like this:

net use T: \\toltec\test

This command will make our [test] share (from Chapter 2) show up as the T: drive in My Computer. This will happen automatically, and T: will be available to the user at the beginning of her session, instead of requiring her to run the net use command or connect the T: drive using the Map Network Drive function of Windows Explorer.

Another useful command is:

net use H: /home

which connects the user's home directory to a drive letter (which can be H:, as shown here, or some other letter, as defined by logon drive). For this to work, you must have a [homes] share defined in your smb.conf file.

If you are using roaming profiles, you should definitely have:

net time \\toltec /set /yes

in your logon script. (As usual, replace "toltec" with the name of your Samba PDC.) This will make sure the clocks of the Windows clients are synchronized with the PDC, which is important for roaming profiles to work correctly.

Creating a Logon Script

In our smb.conf file, we have the line:

logon script = logon.bat

This defines the location and name of the logon script batch file on the Samba server. The path is relative to the [netlogon] share, defined later in the file like this:

[netlogon]
    path = /usr/local/samba/lib/netlogon
    writable = no
    browsable = no

With this example, the logon script is /user/local/samba/lib/netlogon/logon.bat. We include the directives writable = no, to make sure network clients cannot change anything in the [netlogon] share, and also browsable = no, which keeps them from even seeing the share when they browse the contents of the server. Nothing in [netlogon] should ever be modified by nonadministrative users. Also, the permissions on the directory for [netlogon] should be set appropriately (no write permissions for "other" users), as we showed you earlier in this chapter.

Notice also that the extension of our logon script is .bat. Be careful about this—an extension of .cmd will work for Windows NT/2000/XP clients, but will result in errors for Windows 95/98/Me clients, which do not recognize .cmd as an extension for batch files.

Because the logon script will be executed on a Windows system, it must be in MS-DOS text-file format, with the end of line composed of a carriage return followed by a linefeed. The Unix convention is a newline, which is simply a linefeed character, so if you use a Unix text editor to create your logon script, you must somehow make it use the appropriate characters. With vim (a clone of the vi editor that is distributed with Red Hat Linux), the method is to create a new file and use the command:

:se ff=dos

to set the file format to MS-DOS style before typing in any text. With emacs, the same can be done using the command:

^X Enter f dos Enter

where ^X is a Control-X character and Enter is a press of the Enter key. Another method is to create a Unix-format file in any text editor and then convert it to MS-DOS format using the unix2dos program:

$ unix2dos unix_file >logon.bat

If your system does not have unix2dos, don't worry. You can implement it yourself with the following two-line Perl script:

#!/usr/bin/perl
open FILE, $ARGV[0];
while (<FILE>) { s/$/\r/; print }

Or, you can use Notepad on a Windows system to write your script and then drag the logon script over to a folder on the Samba server. In any case, you can check the format of your script using the od command, like this:

$ od -c logon.bat

You should see output resembling this:

0000000   n  e  t     u  s  e      T   :    \  \  t  o  l
0000020   t  e  c  \  t  e  s  t  \r  \n
0000032

The important detail here is that at the end of each line is a \r \n, which is a carriage return followed by a linefeed.

Our example logon script, containing a single net use command, was created and set up in a way that allows it to be run successfully on any Windows client, regardless of which Windows version is installed on the client and which user is authenticating or logging on to the domain. But what if we need to have different users, computers, or Windows versions running different logon scripts?

One method is to use variables inside the logon script that cause commands to be conditionally executed. For details on how to do this, you can consult a reference on batch-file programming for MS-DOS and Windows NT command language. One such reference is Windows NT System Administration, published by O'Reilly.

Windows batch-command language is very limited in functionality. Fortunately, Samba also supports a means by which customization can be handled. The smb.conf file contains variables that can be used to insert (at runtime) the name of the server (%L), the username of the person who is accessing the server's resources (%u), or the computer name of the client system (%m). To give an example, if we set up the path to the logon script as:

logon script = %u/logon.bat

we would then put a directory for each user in the [netlogon] share, with each directory named the same as the user's username, and in each directory we would put a customized logon.bat file. Then each user would have his own custom logon script. We will give you a better example of how to do this kind of thing in the next section, Section 4.5.

TIP

For more information on Samba configuration file variables, such as the %L, %u, and %m variables we just used, see Chapter 6 and Appendix B.

When modifying and testing your logon script, don't just log off of your Windows session and log back on to make your script run. Instead, restart (reboot) your system before logging back on. Because Windows often keeps the [netlogon] share open across logon sessions, the reboot ensures that Windows and Samba have completely released and reconnected the [netlogon] share, and the new version of the logon script is being run while logging on.

More information regarding logon scripts can be found in the O'Reilly book, Managing Windows NT Logons.

Roaming Profiles

One benefit of the centralized authentication of Windows NT domains is that a user can log on from more than just one computer. To help users feel more "at home" when logged on at a computer other than their usual one, Microsoft has added the ability for users' personal settings to "roam" from one computer to another.

All Windows versions can be configured individually for each user of the computer. Windows NT/2000/XP supports the ability to handle multiple user accounts, and Windows 95/98/Me can be configured for use by multiple users, keeping the configuration settings for each user separate. Each user can configure the computer's settings to her liking, and the system saves these settings as the user's profile, such that upon logging on to the system, the user is presented with her familiar desktop.

Some of the settings, such as folder options or the image used for the desktop background, are held in the registry. Others, including the documents and folders appearing on the desktop and the contents of the Start menu, are stored as folders and files in the filesystem.

When the profile is stored on the local system, it is called a local profile. On Windows NT, local profiles are stored in C:\winnt\profiles. On Windows 2000/XP, they can be found in C:\Documents and Settings. On Windows 95/98/Me, when configured for a single user (the default case), the local profile is scattered in places such as the registry and directories such as C:\Windows\Desktop and C:\Windows\Start Menu. When Windows 95/98/Me is configured for multiple users, the local profile of the preexisting user is moved to a folder in C:\Windows\Profiles that has the same name as the user, and any users that are subsequently added to the computer have their local profiles created in that directory as well. You can browse through the local profiles to see their structure—each has a


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