[Войти] [Зарегистрироваться]

Наши друзья и партнеры

Беспроводные выключатели nooLite

Lines Club

Ищем достойных соперников.

Книги по Linux (с отзывами читателей)

Библиотека сайта или "Мой Linux Documentation Project"

 Purchase  Copyright © 2002 Paul Sheer. Click here for copying permissions.  Home 

next up previous contents
Next: 30. exim and sendmail Up: rute Previous: 28. Network File System,   Contents


29. Services Running Under inetd

There are some hundred odd services that a common LINUX distribution supports. For all of these to be running simultaneously would be a strain. Hence, a special daemon process watches for incoming TCP connections and then starts the relevant executable, saving that executable from having to run all the time. This is used only for sparsely used services--that is, not web, mail, or DNS.

The daemon that performs this function is traditionally called inetd: the subject of this chapter.

(Section 36.1 contains an example of writing your own network service in shell script to run under inetd.)

29.1 The inetd Package

Which package contains inetd depends on the taste of your distribution. Indeed, under RedHat, version 7.0 switched to xinetd, a move that departs radically from the traditional UNIX inetd. xinetd is discussed below. The important inetd files are the configuration file /etc/inetd.conf, the executable /usr/sbin/inetd, the inetd and inetd.conf man pages, and the startup script /etc/init.d/inet (or /etc/rc.d/init.d/inetd or /etc/init.d/inetd). Another important file is /etc/services, discussed in Section 26.4.

29.2 Invoking Services with /etc/inetd.conf

Most services can be started in one of three ways: first as a standalone (resource hungry, as discussed) daemon; second, under inetd; or third as an inetd service which is ``TCP wrapper''-moderated. However, some services will run using only one method. Here, we will give an example showing all three methods. You will need to have an ftp package installed for this example (either wuftpd on RedHat or ftpd on Debian).

29.2.1 Invoking a standalone service

Try the following (alternative commands in parentheses):

/usr/sbin/in.ftpd -D
( /usr/sbin/in.wuftpd -s )

The -D option instructs the service to start in Daemon mode (or standalone mode). This represents the first way of running an Internet service.

29.2.2 Invoking an inetd service

With this method we can let inetd run the service for us. Edit your /etc/inetd.conf file and add or edit the line (alternatives in parentheses):

ftp       stream tcp   nowait root  /usr/sbin/in.ftpd in.ftpd
( ftp       stream tcp   nowait root  /usr/sbin/in.wuftpd in.wuftpd )

Then, restart the inetd service with

/etc/init.d/inet restart
( killall -1 inetd )
( /etc/rc.d/init.d/inet restart )

and test with

ps awx | grep ftp
ftp localhost

The fields in the /etc/inetd.conf file have the following meanings:

The name of the service. Looking in the /etc/services file, we can see that this is TCP port 21.
stream tcp
Socket type and protocol. In this case, a TCP stream socket, and hardly ever anything else.
Do not wait for the process to exit before listening for a further incoming connection. Compare to wait and respawn in Chapter 32.
The initial user ID under which the service must run.
/usr/sbin/in.ftpd ( /usr/sbin/in.wuftpd )
The actual executable.
The command-line. In this case, just the program name and no options.

29.2.3 Invoking an inetd ``TCP wrapper'' service

With this last method we let inetd run the service for us under the tcpd wrapper command. This is almost the same as before, but with a slight change in the /etc/inetd.conf entry:

ftp       stream tcp   nowait root  /usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/sbin/in.ftpd
( ftp       stream tcp   nowait root  /usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/sbin/in.wuftpd )

Then, restart the inetd service as before. These alternative lines allow tcpd to invoke in.ftpd (or in.wuftpd) on inetd's behalf. The tcpd command does various tests on the incoming connection to decide whether it should be trusted. tcpd checks what host the connection originates from and compares that host against entries in the file /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny. It can refuse connections from selected hosts, thus giving you finer access control to services.

Consider the preceding /etc/inetd.conf entry against the following line in your /etc/hosts.allow file:

in.ftpd: LOCAL, .my.domain
( in.wuftpd: LOCAL, .my.domain )

as well as the following line in the file /etc/hosts.deny:

in.ftpd: ALL
( in.wuftpd: ALL )

This example will deny connections from all machines with host names not ending in .my.domain but allow connections from the local [The same machine on which inetd is running] machine. It is useful at this point to try make an ftp connection from different machines to test access control. A complete explanation of the /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny file format can be obtained from hosts_access(5). Another example is ( /etc/hosts.deny):

ALL: .snake.oil.com,

which would deny access for ALL services to all machines inside the (first 20 bits) network, as well as all machines under the snake.oil.com domain.

29.2.4 Distribution conventions

Note that the above methods cannot be used simultaneously. If a service is already running one way, trying to start it another way will fail, possibly with a ``port in use'' error message. Your distribution would have already decided whether to make the service an inetd entry or a standalone daemon. In the former case, a line in /etc/inetd.conf will be present; in the latter case, a script /etc/init.d/<service> (or /etc/rc.d/init.d/<service>) will be present to start or stop the daemon. Typically, there will be no /etc/init.d/ftpd script, but there will be /etc/init.d/httpd and /etc/init.d/named scripts. Note that there will always be a /etc/init.d/inet script.

29.3 Various Service Explanations

All these services are potential security holes. Don't take chances: disable them all by commenting out all lines in /etc/inetd.conf.

A typical /etc/inetd.conf file (without the comment lines) looks something like:

ftp     stream  tcp   nowait  root        /usr/sbin/tcpd  in.ftpd -l -a
telnet  stream  tcp   nowait  root        /usr/sbin/tcpd  in.telnetd
shell   stream  tcp   nowait  root        /usr/sbin/tcpd  in.rshd
login   stream  tcp   nowait  root        /usr/sbin/tcpd  in.rlogind
talk    dgram   udp   wait    nobody.tty  /usr/sbin/tcpd  in.talkd
ntalk   dgram   udp   wait    nobody.tty  /usr/sbin/tcpd  in.ntalkd
pop-3   stream  tcp   nowait  root        /usr/sbin/tcpd  ipop3d
imap    stream  tcp   nowait  root        /usr/sbin/tcpd  imapd
uucp    stream  tcp   nowait  uucp        /usr/sbin/tcpd  /usr/sbin/uucico -l
tftp    dgram   udp   wait    root        /usr/sbin/tcpd  in.tftpd
bootps  dgram   udp   wait    root        /usr/sbin/tcpd  bootpd
finger  stream  tcp   nowait  nobody      /usr/sbin/tcpd  in.fingerd
auth    stream  tcp   wait    root   /usr/sbin/in.identd  in.identd -e -o        

The above services have the following purposes (port numbers in parentheses):

ftp (21)
File Transfer Protocol, as shown above.
telnet (23)
Telnet login access.
shell (514)
rsh Remote shell script execution service.
login (513)
rlogin Remote Login login service.
talk (517), ntalk
User communication gimmick.
pop-3 (110)
Post Office Protocol mail retrieval service--how most people get their mail through their ISP.
imap (143)
Internet Mail Access Protocol--a more sophisticated and dangerously insecure version of POP.
uucp (540)
Unix-to-Unix copy operating over TCP.
tftp (69)
Trivial FTP service used, for example, by diskless workstations to retrieve a kernel image.
bootpd (67)
BOOTP IP configuration service for LANs that require automatic IP assignment.
finger (79)
User lookup service.
auth (113)
A service that determines the owner of a particular TCP connection. If you run a machine with lots of users, administrators of other machines can see which users are connecting to them from your machine. For tracking purposes, some IRC and FTP servers require that a connecting client run this service. Disable this service if your box does not support shell logins for many users.

29.4 The xinetd Alternative

Instead of the usual inetd +  tcpd combination, RedHat switched to the xinetd package as of version 7.0. The xinetd package combines the features of tcpd and inetd into one neat package. The xinetd package consists of a top-level config file, /etc/xinetd.conf; an executable /usr/sbin/xinetd; and then a config file for each service under the directory /etc/xinetd.d/. This arrangement allows a package like ftpd control over its own configuration through its own separate file.

29.5 Configuration Files

The default top-level config file, /etc/xinetd.conf, looks simply like this:

    instances        = 60
    log_type         = SYSLOG authpriv
    log_on_success   = HOST PID
    log_on_failure   = HOST RECORD
includedir /etc/xinetd.d

The file dictates, respectively, that xinetd does the following: limits the number of simultaneous connections of each service to 60; logs to the syslog facility, using syslog's authpriv channel; logs the HOST and Process ID for each successful connection; and logs the HOST (and also RECORD information about the connection attempt) for each failed connection. In other words, /etc/xinetd.conf really says nothing interesting at all.

The last line says to look in /etc/xinetd.d/ for more (service-specific) files. Our FTP service would have the file /etc/xinetd.d/wu-ftpd containing:

service ftp
    socket_type      = stream
    server           = /usr/sbin/in.ftpd
    server_args      = -l -a
    wait             = no
    user             = root
    log_on_success   += DURATION USERID
    log_on_failure   += USERID
    nice             = 10

This file is similar to our /etc/inetd.conf line above, albeit more verbose. Respectively, this file dictates these actions: listen with a stream TCP socket; run the executable /usr/sbin/in.ftpd on a successful incoming connection; pass the arguments -l -a on the command-line to in.ftpd (see ftpd(8)); never wait for in.ftpd to exit before accepting the next incoming connection; run in.ftpd as user root; additionally log the DURATION and USERID of successful connections; additionally log the USERID of failed connections; and be nice to the CPU by running in.ftpd at a priority of 10.

29.5.1 Limiting access

The security options of xinetd allow much flexibility. Most important is the only_from option to limit the remote hosts allowed to use a service. The most extreme use is to add only_from to the top-level config file:

    only_from    = mymachine.local.domain

which allows no remote machines to use any xinetd service at all. Alternatively, you can add an only_from line to any of the files in /etc/xinetd.d/ to restrict access on a per-service basis.

only_from can also take IP address ranges of the form nnn .nnn .nnn .nnn /bits, as well as domain names. For example,

    only_from   =  .somewhere.friendly.com

which in the last case allows access from all machines with host names ending in .somewhere.friendly.com.

Finally there is the no_access option that works identically to only_from, dictating hosts and IP ranges from which connections are not allowed:

    no_access   =  .snake.oil.net

29.6 Security

It may be thought that using /etc/hosts.deny ( or only_from = ) to deny access to all remote machines should be enough to secure a system. This is not true: even a local user being able to access a local service is a potential security hole, since the service usually has higher privileges than the user. It is best to remove all services that are not absolutely necessary. For Internet machines, do not hesitate to hash out every last service or even uninstall inetd ( or xinetd ) entirely.

See also Chapter 44.

next up previous contents
Next: 30. exim and sendmail Up: rute Previous: 28. Network File System,   Contents
Эта статья еще не оценивалась
Вы сможете оценить статью и оставить комментарий, если войдете или зарегистрируетесь.
Только зарегистрированные пользователи могут оценивать и комментировать статьи.

Комментарии отсутствуют