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Additional options to rpm -i

Normally rpm -i, perhaps with the -v and -h, is all you'll need. However, there may be times when a basic install is not going to get the job done. Fortunately, RPM has a wealth of install options to make the tough times a little easier. As with any other powerful tool, you should understand these options before putting them to use. Let's take a look at them:

Getting a lot more information with -vv

Sometimes it's necessary to have even more information than we can get with -v. By adding another v, we can start to see more of RPM's inner workings:
# rpm -ivv eject-1.2-2.i386.rpm
D: installing eject-1.2-2.i386.rpm
Installing eject-1.2-2.i386.rpm
D: package: eject-1.2-2 files test = 0
D: running preinstall script (if any)
D: setting file owners and groups by name (not id)
D: ///usr/bin/eject owned by root (0), group root (0) mode 755
D: ///usr/man/man1/eject.1 owned by root (0), group root (0) mode 644
D: running postinstall script (if any)
#
          

The lines starting with D: have been added by using -vv. The line ending with "files test = 0", means that RPM is actually going to install the package. If the number were non-zero, it would mean that the --test option was present, and RPM would not actually perform the installation. For more information on using --test with rpm -i, see the section called --test: Perform Installation Tests Only.

Continuing with the above example, we see that RPM next executes a pre-install script (if there is one), followed by the actual installation of the files in the package. There is one line for each file being installed, and that line shows the filename, ownership, group membership, and permissions (or mode) applied to the file. With larger packages, the output from -vv can get quite lengthy! Finally, RPM runs a post-install script, if one exists for the package. We'll be discussing pre- and post-install scripts in more detail in the section called --noscripts: Do Not Execute Pre- and Post-install Scripts.

In the vast majority of cases, it will not be necessary to use -vv. It is normally used by software engineers working on RPM itself, and the output can change without notice. However, it's a handy way to gain insights into RPM's inner workings.

--test: Perform Installation Tests Only

There are times when it's more appropriate to take it slow and not try to install a package right away. RPM provides the --test option for that. As the names implies, it performs all the checks that RPM normally does during an install, but stops short of actually performing the steps necessary to install the package:
# rpm -i --test eject-1.2-2.i386.rpm
#
          
Once again, there's not very much output. This is because the test succeeded; had there been a problem, the output would have been a bit more interesting. In this example, there are some problems:
# rpm -i --test rpm-2.0.11-1.i386.rpm
/bin/rpm conflicts with file from rpm-2.3-1
/usr/bin/gendiff conflicts with file from rpm-2.3-1
/usr/bin/rpm2cpio conflicts with file from rpm-2.3-1
/usr/bin/rpmconvert conflicts with file from rpm-2.3-1
/usr/man/man8/rpm.8 conflicts with file from rpm-2.3-1
error: rpm-2.0.11-1.i386.rpm cannot be installed
#
          

If you'll note the version numbers, we're trying to install an older version of RPM (2.0.11) "on top of" a newer version(2.3). RPM faithfully reported the various file conflicts and summarized with a message saying that the install would not have proceeded, even if --test had not been on the command line.

The --test option will also catch dependency-related problems:
# rpm -i --test blather-7.9-1.i386.rpm
failed dependencies:
        bother >= 3.1 is needed by blather-7.9-1
#
          

Here's a tip for all you script-writers out there: RPM will return a non-zero status if the --test option detects problems…

--replacepkgs: Install the Package Even If Already Installed

The --replacepkgs option is used to force RPM to install a package that it believes to be installed already. This option is normally used if the installed package has been damaged somehow and needs to be fixed up.

To see how the --replacepkgs option works, let's first install some software:
# rpm -iv cdp-0.33-2.i386.rpm
Installing cdp-0.33-2.i386.rpm
#
          
OK, now that we have cdp-0.33-2 installed, let's see what happens if we try to install the same version "on top of" itself:
# rpm -iv cdp-0.33-2.i386.rpm
Installing cdp-0.33-2.i386.rpm
package cdp-0.33-2 is already installed
error: cdp-0.33-2.i386.rpm cannot be installed
#
          
That didn't go very well. Let's see what adding --replacepkgs will do :
# rpm -iv --replacepkgs cdp-0.33-2.i386.rpm
Installing cdp-0.33-2.i386.rpm
#
          

Much better. The original package was replaced by a new copy of itself.

--replacefiles: Install the Package Even If It Replaces Another Package's Files

While the --replacepkgs option permitted a package to be installed "on top of" itself, --replacefiles is used to allow a package to overwrite files belonging to a different package. Sounds strange? Let's go over it in a bit more detail.

One thing that sets RPM apart from many other package managers is that it keeps track of all the files it installs in a database. Each file's database entry contains a variety of information about the file, including a means of summarizing the file's contents. [1] By using these summaries, known as MD5 checksums, RPM can determine if a particular file is going to be replaced by a file with the same name, but different contents. Here's an example:

Package "A" installs a file (we'll call it /bin/foo.bar). Once Package A is installed, foo.bar resides happily in the /bin directory. In the RPM database, there is an entry for /bin/foo.bar, including the file's MD5 checksum.

However, there is a another package, "B". Package B also has a file called foo.bar that it wants to install in /bin. There can't be two files in the same directory with the same name. The files are different; their MD5 checksums do not match. What happens if Package B is installed? Let's find out. Here, we've installed a package:
# rpm -iv cdp-0.33-2.i386.rpm
Installing cdp-0.33-2.i386.rpm
#
          
OK, no problem there. But we have another package to install. In this case, it is a new release of the cdp package. It should be noted that RPM's detection of file conflicts does not depend on the two packages being related. It is strictly based on the name of the file, the directory in which it resides, and the file's MD5 checksum. Here's what happens when we try to install the package:
# rpm -iv cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm
Installing cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm
/usr/bin/cdp conflicts with file from cdp-0.33-2
error: cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm cannot be installed
#
          
What's happening? The package cdp-0.33-2 has a file, /usr/bin/cdp, that it installed. Sure enough, there it is. Let's highlight the size and creation date of the file for future reference:
# ls -al /usr/bin/cdp
-rwxr-xr-x   1 root     root        34460 Feb 25 14:27 /usr/bin/cdp
#
          
The package we just tried to install, cdp-0.33-3 (note the different release), also installs a file cdp in /usr/bin. Since there is a conflict, that means that the two package's cdp files must be different — their checksums don't match. Because of this, RPM won't let the second package install. But with --replacefiles, we can force RPM to let the /usr/bin/cdp from cdp-0.33-3 replace the /usr/bin/cdp from cdp-0.33-2:
# rpm -iv --replacefiles cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm
Installing cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm
#
          
Taking a closer look at /usr/bin/cdp, we find that they certainly are different, both in size and creation date:
# ls -al /usr/bin/cdp
-rwxr-xr-x   1 root     root        34444 Apr 24 22:37 /usr/bin/cdp
#
          

File conflicts should be a relatively rare occurrence. They only happen when two packages attempt to install files with the same name but different contents. There are two possible reasons for this to happen:

  • Installing a newer version of a package without erasing the older version. A newer version of a package is a wonderful source of file conflicts against older versions — the filenames remain the same, but the contents change. We used it in our example because it's an easy way to show what happens when there are file conflicts. However, it is usually a bad idea when it comes to doing this as a way to upgrade packages. RPM has a special option for this (rpm -U) that is discussed in Chapter 4.

  • Installing two unrelated packages that each install a file with the same name. This may happen because of poor package design (hence the file residing in more than one package), or a lack of coordination between the people building the packages.

--replacefiles and Config Files

What happens if a conflicting file is a config file that you've sweated over and worked on until it's just right? Will issuing a --replacefiles on a package with a conflicting config file blow all your changes away?

No! RPM won't cook your goose. [2]

It will save any changes you've made, to a config file called <file>.rpmsave. Let's give it a try:

As system administrator, you want to make sure your new users have a rich environment the first time they log in. So you've come up with a really nifty .bashrc file that will be executed whenever they log in. Knowing that everyone will enjoy your wonderful .bashrc file, you place it in /etc/skel. That way, every time a new account is created, your .bashrc will be copied into the new user's login directory.

Not realizing that the .bashrc file you modified in /etc/skel is listed as a config file in a package called (strangely enough) etcskel, you decide to experiment with RPM using the etcskel package. First you try to install it:
# rpm -iv etcskel-1.0-100.i386.rpm
etcskel       /etc/skel/.bashrc conflicts with file from etcskel-1.0-3
error: etcskel-1.0-100.i386.rpm cannot be installed
#
            
Hmmm. That didn't work. Wait a minute! I can add --replacefiles to the command and it should install just fine:
# rpm -iv --replacefiles etcskel-1.0-100.i386.rpm
Installing etcskel-1.0-100.i386.rpm
warning: /etc/skel/.bashrc saved as /etc/skel/.bashrc.rpmsave
#
            
Wait a minute… That's my customized .bashrc! Was it really saved?
# ls -al /etc/skel/
total 8
-rwxr-xr-x   1 root     root          186 Oct 12  1994 .Xclients
-rw-r--r--   1 root     root         1126 Aug 23  1995 .Xdefaults
-rw-r--r--   1 root     root           24 Jul 13  1994 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r--   1 root     root          220 Aug 23  1995 .bash_profile
-rw-r--r--   1 root     root          169 Jun 17 20:02 .bashrc
-rw-r--r--   1 root     root          159 Jun 17 20:46 .bashrc.rpmsave
drwxr-xr-x   2 root     root         1024 May 13 13:18 .xfm
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root            9 Jun 17 20:46 .xsession -> .Xclients
# cat /etc/skel/.bashrc.rpmsave
# .bashrc
# User specific aliases and functions
# Modified by the sysadmin
uptime
# Source global definitions
if [ -f /etc/bashrc ]; then
        . /etc/bashrc
fi
#
            

Whew! You heave a sigh of relief, and study the new .bashrc to see if the changes need to be integrated into your customized version.

--replacefiles Can Mean Trouble Down the Road

While --replacefiles can make today's difficult install go away, it can mean big headaches in the future. When the time comes for erasing the packages involved in a file conflict, bad things can happen.

What bad things? Well, files can be deleted. Here's how, in three easy steps:

  1. Two packages are installed. When the second package is installed, there is a conflict with a file installed by the first package. Therefore, the --replacefiles option is used to force RPM to replace the conflicting file with the one from the second package.

  2. At some point in the future, the second package is erased.

  3. The conflicting file is gone!

Let's look at an example. First, we install a new package. Next, we take a look at a file it installed, noting the size and creation date.
# rpm -iv cdp-0.33-2.i386.rpm
Installing cdp-0.33-2.i386.rpm
# ls -al /usr/bin/cdp
-rwxr-xr-x   1 root     root        34460 Feb 25 14:27 /usr/bin/cdp
#
            
Next, we try to install a newer release of the same package. It fails:
# rpm -iv cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm
Installing cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm
/usr/bin/cdp conflicts with file from cdp-0.33-2
error: cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm cannot be installed
#
            
So, we use --replacefiles to convince the newer package to install. We note that the newer package installed a file on top of the file originally installed:
# rpm -iv --replacefiles cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm
Installing cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm
# ls -al /usr/bin/cdp
-rwxr-xr-x   1 root     root        34444 Apr 24 22:37 /usr/bin/cdp
#
            

The original cdp file, 34,460 bytes long, and dated February 25th, has been replaced with a file with the same name, but 34,444 bytes long from the 24th of April. The original file is long gone.

Next, we erased the package we just installed. [3] Finally, we tried to find the file:
# rpm -e cdp-0.33-3
# ls -al /usr/bin/cdp
ls: /usr/bin/cdp: No such file or directory
#
            

The file is gone. Why is this? The reason is that /usr/bin/cdp from the first package was replaced when the second package was installed using the --replacefiles option. Then, when the second package was erased, the /usr/bin/cdp file was removed, since it belonged to the second package. If the first package had been erased first, there would have been no problem, since RPM would have realized that the first package's file had already been deleted, and would have left the file in place.

The only problem with this state of affairs is that the first package is still installed, except for /usr/bin/cdp. So now there's a partially installed package on the system. What to do? Perhaps it's time to exercise your new-found knowledge by issuing an rpm -i --replacepkgs command to fix up the first package…

--nodeps: Do Not Check Dependencies Before Installing Package

One day it'll happen. You'll be installing a new package, when suddenly, the install bombs:
# rpm -i blather-7.9-1.i386.rpm
failed dependencies:
        bother >= 3.1 is needed by blather-7.9-1
#
          

What happened? The problem is that the package you're installing requires another package to be installed in order for it to work properly. In our example, the blather package won't work properly unless the bother package (and more specifically, bother version 3.1 or later) is installed. Since our system doesn't have an appropriate version of bother installed at all, RPM aborted the installation of blather.

Now, 99 times out of 100, this exactly the right thing for RPM to do. After all, if the package doesn't have everything it needs to work properly, why try to install it? Well, as with everything else in life, there are exceptions to the rule. And that is why there is a --nodeps option.

Adding the --nodeps options to an install command directs RPM to ignore any dependency-related problems and to complete the package installation. Going back to our example above, let's add the --nodeps option to the command line and see what happens:
# rpm -i --nodeps blather-7.9-1.i386.rpm
#
          

The package was installed without a peep. Whether it will work properly is another matter, but it is installed. In general, it's not a good idea to use --nodeps to get around dependency problems. The package builders included the dependency requirements for a reason, and it's best not to second-guess them.

--force: The Big Hammer

Adding --force to an install command is a way of saying "Install it anyway!" In essence, it adds --replacepkgs and --replacefiles to the command. Like a big hammer, --force is an irresistible force [4] that makes things happen. In fact, the only thing that will prevent a --force'ed install from proceeding is a dependency conflict.

And like a big hammer, it pays to fully understand why you need to use --force before actually using it.

--excludedocs: Do Not Install Documentation For This Package

RPM has a number of good features. One of them is the fact that RPM classifies the files it installs into one of three categories:

  1. Config files.

  2. Files containing documentation.

  3. All other files.

RPM uses the --excludedocs option to prevent files classified as documentation from being installed. In the following example, we know that the package contains documentation: specifically, the man page, /usr/man/man1/cdp.1. Let's see how --excludedocs keeps it from being installed:
# rpm -iv --excludedocs cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm
Installing cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm
# ls -al /usr/man/man1/cdp.1
ls: /usr/man/man1/cdp.1: No such file or directory
#
          

The primary reason to use --excludedocs is to save on disk space. The savings can be sizeable. For example, on an RPM-installed Linux system, there can be over 5,000 documentation files, using nearly 50 megabytes.

If you like, you can make --excludedocs the default for all installs. To do this, simply add the following line to /etc/rpmrc, .rpmrc in your login directory, or the file specified with the --rcfile (which is discussed in the section called --rcfile <rcfile>: Use <rcfile> As An Alternate rpmrc File) option:

excludedocs: 1

After that, every time an rpm -i command is run, it will not install any documentation files. [5]

--includedocs: Install Documentation For This Package

As the name implies, --includedocs directs RPM to install any files marked as being documentation. This option is normally not required, unless the rpmrc file entry "excludedocs: 1" is included in the referenced rpmrc file. Here's an example. Note that in this example, /etc/rpmrc contains "excludedocs: 1", which directs RPM not to install documentation files:
# ls /usr/man/man1/cdp.1
ls: /usr/man/man1/cdp.1: No such file or directory
# rpm -iv cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm
Installing cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm
# ls /usr/man/man1/cdp.1
ls: /usr/man/man1/cdp.1: No such file or directory
#
          
Here we've checked to make sure that the cdp man page did not previously exist on the system. Then after installing the cdp package, we find that the "excludedocs: 1" in /etc/rpmrc did its job: the man page wasn't installed. Let's try it again, this time adding the --includedocs option:
# ls /usr/man/man1/cdp.1
ls: /usr/man/man1/cdp.1: No such file or directory
# rpm -iv --includedocs cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm
Installing cdp-0.33-3.i386.rpm
# ls /usr/man/man1/cdp.1
-rw-r--r--   1 root     root         4550 Apr 24 22:37 /usr/man/man1/cdp.1
#
          

The --includedocs option overrode the rpmrc file's "excludedocs: 1" entry, causing RPM to install the documentation file.

--prefix <path>: Relocate the package to <path>, if possible

Some packages give the person installing them flexibility in determining where on their system they should be installed. These are known as relocatable packages. A relocatable package differs from a package that cannot be relocated, in only one way — the definition of a default prefix. Because of this, it takes a bit of additional effort to determine if a package is relocatable. But here's an RPM command that can be used to find out: [6]
rpm -qp --queryformat "%{defaultprefix}\n" <packagefile>
          

Just replace <packagefile> with the name of the package file you want to check out. If the package is not relocatable, you'll only see the word (none). If, on the other hand, the command displays a path, that means the package is relocatable. Unless specified otherwise, every file in the package will be installed somewhere below the path specified by the default prefix.

What if you want to specify otherwise? Easy: just use the --prefix option. Let's give it a try:
# rpm -qp --queryformat "%{defaultprefix}\n" cdplayer-1.0-1.i386.rpm
/usr/local
# rpm -i --prefix /tmp/test cdplayer-1.0-1.i386.rpm
#
          
Here we've used our magic query command to determine that the cdplayer package is relocatable. It normally installs below /usr/local, but we wanted to move it around. By adding the --prefix option, we were able to make the package install in /tmp/test. If we take a look there, we'll see that RPM created all the necessary directories to hold the package's files:
# ls -lR /tmp/test/
total 2
drwxr-xr-x   2 root     root         1024 Dec 16 13:21 bin/
drwxr-xr-x   3 root     root         1024 Dec 16 13:21 man/

/tmp/test/bin:
total 41
-rwxr-xr-x   1 root     root        40739 Oct 14 20:25 cdp*
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           17 Dec 16 13:21 cdplay -> /tmp/test/bin/cdp*

/tmp/test/man:
total 1
drwxr-xr-x   2 root     root         1024 Dec 16 13:21 man1/

/tmp/test/man/man1:
total 5
-rwxr-xr-x   1 root     root         4550 Oct 14 20:25 cdp.1*
#
          

--noscripts: Do Not Execute Pre- and Post-install Scripts

Before we talk about the --noscripts option, we need to cover a bit of background. In the section called Getting a lot more information with -vv, we saw some output from an install using the -vv option. As can be seen, there are two lines that mention pre-install and post-install scripts. When some packages are installed, they may require that certain programs be executed before, after, or before and after the package's files are copied to disk. [7]

The --noscripts option prevents these scripts from being executed during an install. This is a very dangerous thing to do! The --noscripts option is really meant for package builders to use during the development of their packages. By preventing the pre- and post-install scripts from running, a package builder can keep a buggy package from bringing down their development system. Once the bugs are found and eliminated, the --noscripts option is no longer necessary.

--percent: Not Meant for Human Consumption

An option that will probably never be very popular is --percent. This option is meant to be used by programs that interact with the user, perhaps presenting a graphical user interface for RPM. When the --percent option is used, RPM displays a series of numbers. Each number is a percentage that indicates how far along the install is. When the number reaches 100%, the installation is complete.
# rpm -i --percent iBCS-1.2-3.i386.rpm
%f iBCS:1.2:3
%% 0.002140
%% 1.492386
%% 5.296632
%% 9.310026
%% 15.271010
%% 26.217846
%% 31.216000
%% 100.000000
%% 100.000000
#
          
The list of percentages will vary depending on the number of files in the package, but every package ends at 100% when completely installed.

--rcfile <rcfile>: Use <rcfile> As An Alternate rpmrc File

The --rcfile option is used to specify a file containing default settings for RPM. Normally, this option is not needed. By default, RPM uses /etc/rpmrc and a file named .rpmrc located in your login directory.

This option would be used if there was a need to switch between several sets of RPM defaults. Software developers and package builders will normally be the only people using the --rcfile option. For more information on rpmrc files, see Appendix B.

--root <path>: Use <path> As An Alternate Root

Adding --root <path> to an install command forces RPM to assume that the directory specified by <path> is actually the "root" directory. The --root option affects every aspect of the install process, so pre- and post-install scripts are run with <path> as their root directory (using chroot(2), if you must know). In addition, RPM expects its database to reside in the directory specified by the dbpath rpmrc file entry, relative to <path>. [8]

Normally this option is only used during an initial system install, or when a system has been booted off a "rescue disk" and some packages need to be re-installed.

--dbpath <path>: Use <path> To Find RPM Database

In order for RPM to do its handiwork, it needs access to an RPM database. Normally, this database exists in the directory specified by the rpmrc file entry, dbpath. By default, dbpath is set to /var/lib/rpm.

Although the dbpath entry can be modified in the appropriate rpmrc file, the --dbpath option is probably a better choice when the database path needs to be changed temporarily. An example of a time the --dbpath option would come in handy is when it's necessary to examine an RPM database copied from another system. Granted, it's not a common occurrence, but it's difficult to handle any other way.

--ftpport <port>: Use <port> In FTP-based Installs

Back in the section called URLs — Another Way to Specify Package Files we showed how RPM can access package files by the use of a URL. We also mentioned that some systems may not use the standard FTP port. In those cases, it's necessary to give RPM the proper port number to use. As we mentioned above, one approach is to embed the port number in the URL itself.

Another approach is to use the --ftpport option. RPM will access the desired port when this option, along with the port number, is added to the command line. In cases where the desired port seldom changes, it may be entered in an rpmrc file by using the ftpport entry. [9]

--ftpproxy <host>: Use <host> As Proxy In FTP-based Installs

Many companies and Internet Service Providers (ISPs) employ various methods to protect their network connections against misuse. One of these methods is to use a system that will process all FTP requests on behalf of the other systems on the company or ISP network. By having a single computer act as a proxy for the other systems, it serves to protect the other systems against any FTP-related misuse.

When RPM is employed on a network with an FTP proxy system, it will be necessary for RPM to direct all its FTP requests to the FTP proxy. RPM will send its FTP requests to the specified proxy system when the --ftpproxy option, along with the proxy hostname, is added to the command line.

In cases where the proxy host seldom changes, it may be entered in an rpmrc file by using the ftpproxy entry. [10]

--ignorearch: Do Not Verify Package Architecture

When a package file is created, RPM specifies the architecture, or type of computer hardware, for which the package was created. This is a good thing, as the architecture is one of the main factors in determining whether a package written for one computer is going to be compatible with another computer.

When a package is installed, RPM uses the arch_compat rpmrc entries in order to determine what are normally considered compatible architectures. Unless you're porting RPM to a new architecture, you shouldn't make any changes to these entries. [11] While RPM attempts to make the right decisions regarding package compatibility, there are times when it errs on the side of conservatism. In those cases, it's necessary to override RPM's decision. The --ignorearch option is used in those cases. When added to the command line, RPM will not perform any architecture-related checking.

Unless you really know what you're doing, you should never use --ignorearch!

--ignoreos: Do Not Verify Package Operating System

When a package file is created, RPM specifies the operating system for which the package was created. This is a good thing as the operating system is one of the main factors in determining whether a package written for one computer is going to be compatible with another computer.

When a package is installed, RPM uses the os_compat rpmrc entries to determine what are normally considered compatible operating systems. Unless you're porting RPM to a new operating system, you shouldn't make any changes to these entries. [12] While RPM attempts to make the right decisions regarding package compatibility, there are times when it errs on the side of conservatism. In those cases, it's necessary to override RPM's decision. The --ignoreos option is used in those cases. When added to the command line, RPM will not perform any operating system-related checking.

Unless you really know what you're doing, you should never use --ignoreos!

Notes

[1]

We'll get more into this aspect of RPM in the section called rpm -V — What Does it Do? in Chapter 6 when we discuss rpm -V.

[2]

You'll have to do that yourself!

[3]

For more information on erasing packages with rpm -e, see Chapter 3.

[4]

No pun intended.

[5]

For more information on rpmrc files, refer to Appendix B.

[6]

We discuss RPM's query commands in Chapter 5.

[7]

It's possible to use RPM's query command to see if a package has pre- or post-install scripts. See the section called --scripts — Show Scripts Associated With a Package in Chapter 5 for more information.

[8]

For more information on rpmrc file entries, see Appendix B.

[9]

The use of rpmrc files is described in Appendix B.

[10]

The use of rpmrc files is described in Appendix B.

[11]

If you are porting RPM, you'll find more on arch_compat in the section called xxx_compat — Define Compatible Architectures in Chapter 19.

[12]

If you are porting RPM, you'll find more on os_compat in the section called xxx_compat — Define Compatible Architectures in Chapter 19.


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