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Книги по Linux (с отзывами читателей)

Библиотека сайта или "Мой Linux Documentation Project"

Glossary

This section contains an alphabetical overview of commands discussed in this document.

A

a2ps

Format files for printing on a PostScript printer, see Section 8.1.2.

acroread

PDF viewer, see Section 8.1.2.2.

adduser

Create a new user or update default new user information.

alias

Create a shell alias for a command.

alsaconf

Configure sound card using the ALSA driver, see Section 11.1.2.

alsamixer

Tune ALSA sound device output, see Section 11.2.2.3.

anacron

Execute commands periodically, does not assume continuously running machine.

apropos

Search the whatis database for strings, see Section 2.3.3.2.

apt-get

APT package handling utility, see Section 7.5.3.2.

arecord

Record a sound sample, see Section 11.2.3.

aspell

Spell checker.

at, atq, atrm

Queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution, see Section 4.1.2.2 and Section 4.4.3.

aumix

Adjust audio mixer, see Section 11.2.2.3.

(g)awk

Pattern scanning and processing language.

B

bash

Bourne Again SHell, see Section 3.2.3.2 and Section 7.2.5.

batch

Queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution, see Section 4.1.2.2.

bg

Run a job in the background, see Section 4.1.2.1.

bitmap

Bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X window System.

bzip2

A block-sorting file compressor, see Section 9.1.1.3.

C

cardctl

Manage PCMCIA cards, see Section 10.2.3.3.

cat

Concatenate files and print to standard output, see Section 2.2 and Section 3.2.4.

cd

Change directory, see Section 2.2.

cdp/cdplay

An interactive text-mode program for controlling and playing audio CD Roms under Linux, see Section 11.2.1.

cdparanoia

An audio CD reading utility which includes extra data verification features, see Section 11.2.1.

cdrecord

Record a CD-R, see Section 9.2.2.

chattr

Change file attributes.

chgrp

Change group ownership, see Section 3.4.2.3.

chkconfig

Update or query run level information for system services, see Section 4.2.5.1.

chmod

Change file access permissions, see Section 3.4.1, Section 3.4.2.1 and Section 3.4.2.4.

chown

Change file owner and group, see Section 3.4.2.3.

compress

Compress files.

cp

Copy files and directories, see Section 3.3.2.

crontab

Maintain crontab files, see Section 4.4.4.

csh

Open a C shell, see Section 3.2.3.2.

cut

Remove sections from each line of file(s), see Section 7.2.5.2.

D

date

Print or set system date and time.

dd

Convert and copy a file (disk dump), see Section 9.2.1.2.

df

Report file system disk usage, see Section 3.1.2.3.

dhcpcd

DHCP client daemon, see Section 10.3.8.

diff

Find differences between two files.

dig

Send domain name query packets to name servers, see Section 10.2.6.1.

dmesg

Print or control the kernel ring buffer.

du

Estimate file space usage.

dump

Backup file system, see Section 9.2.5.

E

echo

Display a line of text, see Section 3.2.1.

ediff

Diff to English translator.

egrep

Extended grep.

eject

Unmount and eject removable media, see Section 7.5.5.2.

emacs

Start the Emacs editor, see Section 6.1.2.1.

exec

Invoke subprocess(es), see Section 4.1.5.1.

exit

Exit current shell, see Section 2.2.

export

Add function(s) to the shell environment, see Section 3.2.1, Section 7.2.1.2 and Section 7.2.4.2.

F

fax2ps

Convert a TIFF facsimile to PostScript, see Section 8.1.2.

fdformat

Format floppy disk, see Section 9.2.1.1.

fdisk

Partition table manipulator for Linux, see Section 3.1.2.2.

fetchmail

Fetch mail from a POP, IMAP, ETRN or ODMR-capable server, see Section 10.3.2.3.

fg

Bring a job in the foreground, see Section 4.1.2.1.

file

Determine file type, see Section 3.3.1.2.

find

Find files, see Section 3.3.3.3.

firefox

Web browser, see Section 10.3.3.2.

fork

Create a new process, see Section 4.1.5.1.

formail

Mail (re)formatter, see Section 10.3.2.3.

fortune

Print a random, hopefully interesting adage.

ftp

Transfer files (unsafe unless anonymous account is used!)services, see Section 10.3.4.2.

G

galeon

Graphical web browser.

gdm

Gnome Display Manager, see Section 4.2.4.

gedit

GUI editor, see Section 6.3.3.3.

(min/a)getty

Control console devices.

gimp

Image manipulation program.

gpg

Encrypt, check and decrypt files, see Section 9.4.1.2.

grep

Print lines matching a pattern, see Section 3.3.3.4 and Section 5.3.1.

groff

Emulate nroff command with groff, see Section 8.1.2.

grub

The grub shell, see Section 4.2.3 and Section 7.5.4.

gv

A PostScript and PDF viewer, see Section 8.1.2.2.

gvim

Graphical version of the vIm editor, see Section 6.3.3.3.

gzip

Compress or expand files, see Section 9.1.1.3.

H

halt

Stop the system, see Section 4.2.6.

head

Output the first part of files, see Section 3.3.4.3.

help

Display help on a shell built-in command.

host

DNS lookup utility, see Section 10.2.6.1.

httpd

Apache hypertext transfer protocol server, see Section 10.2.3.1.

I

id

Print real and effective UIDs and GIDs, see Section 3.4.1.

ifconfig

Configure network interface or show configuration, see Section 10.1.2.3.

info

Read Info documents, see Section 2.3.3.1.

init

Process control initialization, see Section 4.1.5.1, Section 4.2.4 and Section 4.2.5.

insserv

Manage init scripts, see Section 4.2.5.1.

iostat

Display I/O statistics, see Section 4.3.5.4.

ip

Display/change network interface status, see Section 10.1.2.3.

ipchains

IP firewall administration, see Section 10.4.4.2.

iptables

IP packet filter administration, see Section 10.4.4.2.

J

jar

Java archive tool, see Section 9.1.1.4.

jobs

List backgrounded tasks.

K

kdm

Desktop manager for KDE, see Section 4.2.4.

kedit

KDE graphical editor, see Section 6.3.3.3.

kill(all)

Terminate process(es), see Section 4.1.2.1.

konqueror

File manager, (help) browser, see Section 3.3.2.1.

ksh

Open a Korn shell, see Section 3.2.3.2.

kwrite

KDE graphical editor, see Section 6.3.3.3.

L

less

more with features, see Section 3.3.4.2.

lilo

Linux boot loader, see Section 4.2.

links

Text mode WWW browser, see Section 10.2.3.2.

ln

Make links between files, see Section 3.3.5.

loadkeys

Load keyboard translation tables, see Section 7.4.1.

locate

Find files, see Section 3.3.3.3 and Section 4.4.4.

logout

Close current shell, see Section 2.1.3.

lp

Send requests to the LP print service, see Section 8.1.

lpc

Line printer control program, see Section 8.1.

lpq

Print spool queue examination program, see Section 8.1.

lpr

Offline print, see Section 8.1.

lprm

Remove print requests, see Section 8.1.

ls

List directory content, see Section 2.2, Section 3.1.1.2 and Section 3.3.1.1.

lynx

Text mode WWW browser, see Section 10.2.3.2.

M

mail

Send and receive mail, see Section 10.3.2.3.

man

Read man pages, see Section 2.3.2.

mc

Midnight COmmander, file manager, see Section 3.3.2.1.

mcopy

Copy MSDOS files to/from Unix.

mdir

Display an MSDOS directory.

memusage

Display memory usage, see Section 4.3.5.3.

memusagestat

Display memory usage statistics, see Section 4.3.5.3.

mesg

Control write access to your terminal, see Section 4.1.6.

mformat

Add an MSDOS file system to a low-level formatted floppy disk, see Section 9.2.1.1.

mkbootdisk

Creates a stand-alone boot floppy for the running system.

mkdir

Create directory, see Section 3.3.2.

mkisofs

Create a hybrid ISO9660 filesystem, see Section 9.2.2.

mplayer

Movie player/encoder for Linux, see Section 11.2.2 and Section 11.3.

more

Filter for displaying text one screen at the time, see Section 3.3.4.2.

mount

Mount a file system or display information about mounted file systems, see Section 7.5.5.1.

mozilla

Web browser, see Section 10.2.3.2.

mt

Control magnetic tape drive operation.

mtr

Network diagnostic tool.

mv

Rename files, Section 3.3.2.

N

named

Internet domain name server, see Section 10.3.7.

nautilus

File manager, see Section 3.3.2.1.

ncftp

Browser program for ftp services (insecure!), see Section 10.3.4.2.

netstat

Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multi-cast memberships, see Section 10.1.2.5 and Section 10.4.2.

newgrp

Log in to another group, see Section 3.4.2.2.

nfsstat

Print statistics about networked file systems.

nice

Run a program with modified scheduling priority, see Section 4.3.5.1.

nmap

Network exploration tool and security scanner.

ntpd

Network Time Protocol Daemon, see Section 7.4.3.

ntpdate

Set the date and time via an NTP server, see Section 7.4.3.

ntsysv

Simple interface for configuring run levels, see Section 4.2.5.1.

O

ogle

DVD player with support for DVD menus, see Section 11.3.

P

passwd

Change password, see Section 2.2 and Section 4.1.6.

pccardctl

Manage PCMCIA cards, see Section 10.2.3.3.

pdf2ps

Ghostscript PDF to PostScript translator, see Section 8.1.2.

perl

Practical Extraction and Report Language.

pg

Page through text output, see Section 3.3.4.2.

pgrep

Look up processes based on name and other attributes, see Section 4.1.4.

ping

Send echo request to a host, see Section 10.2.6.2.

play

Play a sound sample, see Section 11.2.3.

pr

Convert text files for printing.

printenv

Print all or part of environment, see Section 7.2.1.

procmail

Autonomous mail processor, see Section 10.3.2.3.

ps

Report process status, see Section 4.1.4 and Section 4.3.5.4.

pstree

Display a tree of processes, see Section 4.1.4.

pwd

Print present working directory, see Section 2.2.

Q

quota

Display disk usage and limits, see Section 3.2.3.3.

R

rcp

Remote copy (unsafe!)

rdesktop

Remote Desktop Protocol client, see Section 10.4.6.

reboot

Stop the system, see Section 4.2.6.

recode

Convert files to another character set, see Section 7.4.4.

renice

Alter priority of a running process, see Section 4.3.5.1.

restore

Restore backups made with dump, see Section 9.2.5.

rlogin

Remote login (telnet, insecure!), see Section 10.4.2 and Section 10.5.2.

rm

Remove a file, see Section 3.3.2.

rmdir

Remove a directory, see Section 3.3.2.2.

roff

A survey of the roff typesetting system, see Section 8.1.2.

rpm

RPM Package Manager, see Section 7.5.2.1.

rsh

Remote shell (insecure!), see Section 10.4.2.

rsync

Synchronize two directories, see Section 9.3.

S

scp

Secure remote copy, see Section 10.4.4.1.

screen

Screen manager with VT100 emulation, see Section 4.1.2.1.

set

Display, set or change variable.

setterm

Set terminal attributes.

sftp

Secure (encrypted) ftp, see and Section 10.4.4.1.

sh

Open a standard shell, see Section 3.2.3.2.

shutdown

Bring the system down, see Section 4.2.6.

sleep

Wait for a given period, see Section 4.4.1.

slocate

Security Enhanced version of the GNU Locate, see Section 3.3.3.3.

slrnn

text mode Usenet client, see Section 10.2.6.

snort

Network intrusion detection tool.

sort

Sort lines of text files, see Section 5.3.2.

spell

Spell checker, see Section 5.1.2.3.

ssh

Secure shell, see Section 10.4.4.1.

ssh-keygen

Authentication key generation, management and conversion, see Section 10.4.4.5.

stty

Change and print terminal line settings.

su

Switch user, see Section 3.2.1, Section 7.5.3.2 and Section 10.4.6.

T

tac

Concatenate and print files in reverse, see cat.

tail

Output the last part of files, see Section 3.3.4.3.

talk

Talk to a user.

tar

Archiving utility, see Section 9.1.1.1.

tcsh

Open a Turbo C shell, see Section 3.2.3.2.

telinit

Process control initialization, see Section 4.2.5.

telnet

User interface to the TELNET protocol (insecure!), see Section 10.4.2.

tex

Text formatting and typesetting, see Section 8.1.2.

time

Time a simple command or give resource usage, see Section 4.3.2.

tin

News reading program, see Section 10.2.6.

top

Display top CPU processes, see Section 4.1.4, Section 4.3.5.3 and Section 4.3.5.4.

touch

Change file timestamps, see Section 7.1.2.

traceroute

Print the route packets take to network host, see Section 10.2.6.3.

tripwire

A file integrity checker for UNIX systems, see Section 10.4.5.

troff

Format documents, see Section 8.1.2.

tvime

A high quality television application.

twm

Tab Window Manager for the X Window System.

U

ulimit

Controll resources, see Section 7.1.2.5.

umask

Set user file creation mask, see Section 3.4.2.2.

umount

Unmount a file system.

uncompress

Decompress compressed files.

uniq

Remove duplicate lines from a sorted file, see Section 5.3.2.

up2date

Update RPM packages, see Section 7.5.3.3.

update

Kernel daemon to flush dirty buffers back to disk.

update-rc.d

Configure init scripts, see Section 4.2.5.1.

uptime

Display system uptime and average load, see Section 4.1.4 and Section 4.3.5.2.

urpmi

Update RPM packages, see Section 7.5.3.3.

userdel

Delete a user account and related files.

V

vi(m)

Start the vi (improved) editor, see Section 6.1.2.2.

vimtutor

The Vim tutor.

vmstat

Report virtual memory statistics, see Section 4.3.5.4.

W

w

Show who is logged on and what they are doing.

wall

Send a message to everybody's terminal, see Section 4.1.6.

wc

Print the number of bytes, words and lines in files, see Section 3.2.1.

which

Shows the full path of (shell) commands, see Section 3.2.1 and Section 3.3.3.2.

who

Show who is logged on, see Section 4.1.6.

who am i

Print effective user ID.

whois

Query a whois or nicname database, see Section 10.2.6.4.

write

Send a message to another user, see Section 4.1.6.

X

xargs

Build and execute command lines from standard input, see Section 3.3.3.3.

xauth

X authority file utility.

xawtv

An X11 program for watching TV.

xcdroast

Graphical front end to cdrecord, see Section 9.2.2.

xclock

Analog/digital clock for X.

xconsole

Monitor system console messages with X.

xdm

X Display Manager with support for XDMCP, host chooser, see Section 4.2.4 and Section 7.3.2.

xdvi

DVI viewer, see Section 8.1.2.2.

xedit

X Window graphical editor, see Section 6.3.3.3.

xfs

X font server.

xhost

Server access control program for X, see Section 10.4.3.2.

xine

A free video player, see Section 11.3.

xinetd

The extended Internet services daemon, see Section 10.3.1.2.

xload

System load average display for X, see Section 4.3.5.6.

xlsfonts

Server font list displayer for X.

xmms

Audio player for X, see Section 11.2.2.1.

xpdf

PDF viewer, see Section 8.1.2.2.

xterm

Terminal emulator for X.

Y

yast

System administration tool on Novell SuSE Linux.

yum

Update RPM packages, see Section 7.5.3.3.

Z

zapping

A TV viewer for the Gnome environment.

zcat

Compress or expand files.

zgrep

Search possibly compressed files for a regular expression.

zmore

Filter for viewing compressed text.


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