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Linux Installation and Getting Started
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The X Window System is a graphical user interface (GUI) that was originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Commercial vendors have since made X the industry standard GUI for UNIX platforms. Virtually every UNIX workstation in the world now runs some form of X.
A free port of the MIT X Window System version 11, release 6 (X11R6) for 80386, 80486, and Pentium UNIX systems was developed by a team of programmers that was originally headed by David Wexelblat. This release, known as XFree86, is available for System V/386, 386BSD, and other Intel x86 UNIX implementations, including Linux. It provides all of the binaries, support files, libraries, and tools required for installation.
Some features offered by this release are:
- complete inclusion of the X Consortium's X11R6.3 release;
- a new DPMS extension, donated by Digital Equipment Corporation;
- the Low Bandwidth X (LBX) extension in all X servers;
- Microsoft IntelliMouse support;
- support for
To use the X Window System, you are encouraged to read The X Window System: A User's Guide (see Appendix A). Here, we describe step-by-step an XFree86 installation under Linux. You still need to fill in some of the details by reading the XFree86 documentation, which is discussed below. The Linux XFree86 HOW TO is another good information source.
The documentation for your video adaptor should specify the chip set. If you are in the market for a new video card, or are buying a machine that comes with a video card, ask the vendor to find out exactly what make, model, and chip set the video card comes with. The vendor may need to call the manufacturer's technical support department. Many personal computer hardware vendors state their video card is a ``standard SVGA card,'' that ``should work,'' with your system. Explain that your software (mention Linux and XFree86!) does not support all video chip sets, and that you must have detailed information.
You can also determine your video card chip set by running the
SuperProbe program which is included with the XFree86
distribution. This is described below.
Video cards using these chip sets are supported on all bus types. Virtually all of the cards support 256-color graphics modes. In addition, some of the cards support color modes like monochrome, 15-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit and 32-bit. For color depths greater than 256 (8-bit), you must have the requisite amount of video dynamic RAM (DRAM) installed. The usual configuration is 16 bits per pixel (65536 colors).
The monochrome server also supports generic VGA cards, the Hercules monochrome card, the Hyundai HGC1280, Sigma LaserView, and Apollo monochrome cards.
The release notes for the current version of XFree86 should contain the complete list of supported video chip sets. The XFree86 distribution has chip set-specific README files that give detailed information on the state of support for each chip set.
One problem faced by the XFree86 developers is that some video card manufacturers use non-standard mechanisms to determine the clock frequencies that are used to drive their card. They either don't release specifications which describe how to program the card or require developers to sign non-disclosure statements to get the information. This practice restricts the free distribution of XFree86, and the XFree86 development team is unwilling to accept it. This has been a problem with older video cards manufactured by Diamond, but as of release 3.3, Diamond actively supports the XFree86 Project, Inc.
We also suggest using an accelerated card,
like a S3 chip set card. You should check the XFree86 documentation
and verify that your particular card is supported before you take the
plunge and purchase expensive hardware. Benchmark comparisons of video
cards under XFree86 are posted routinely to the Usenet news groups
It is important to note that the average accelerated video card is significantly faster than the standard graphics card of most workstations. An 80486DX2, 66-MHz Linux System with 20 megabytes of RAM, equipped with a VESA Local Bus (VLB) S3-864 chip set card with 2 megabytes of DRAM, will consistently be about 7 times as fast a Sun Sparc IPX workstation on X benchmarks with the XFree86 server version 3.1. Version 3.3 is even faster. In general, a Linux system with an accelerated SVGA card will give you much greater performance than commercial UNIX workstations, which usually employ simple frame buffers for graphics.
The suggested setup for XFree86 under Linux is a 80486 or faster machine with at least 16 megabytes of RAM. The more physical RAM installed, the less the system must swap to and from the disk when memory is low. Because swapping is inherently slow (disks are very slow compared to memory), having 16 megabytes of RAM or more is necessary to run XFree86 comfortably. A system with 4 megabytes of physical RAM could run 10 to 100 times more slowly than one with 16 megabytes or more.
A standartd, out-of-the-box XFree86 installation requires 60-80 megabytes of disk space, at a minimum. This includes space for the X server(s), fonts, libraries, and standard utilities. If you plan to add applications, you can probably run XFree86 comfortably in 200 megabytes of disk space.
The Linux binary distribution of XFree86 is found on all CD Linux
distributions and can also be found at a number of
FTP sites. On
sunsite.unc.edu, it is found in the directory
/pub/X11/XFree86. At of the time of this writing, the current
version is 3.3.1. Newer versions are released periodically. If you
obtain XFree86 as part of a Linux distribution, downloading the
software separately is not necessary.
These files are included in the XFree86-3.3.1 distribution.
One of the following servers is required:
All of the following files are required:
The following is required for new installations, and optional for
Do not install
X33cfg.tgz over an existing XFree86 installation
without first backing up the configuration files. Unpacking
X33cfg.tgz overwrites these and other files. If you do have
customized configuration files, there is no need to install this
The bit mapped fonts distributed with release 3.3.1 are compressed
gzip program rather than
compress. You will
probably want to remove the old fonts after you back them up. The X
servers and font servers in previous releases cannot read fonts
gzip, so keep a copy of the old fonts if you want
to use older servers.
The following files are optional:
The XFree86 directory should contain
README files and
installation notes for the current version.
Next, as root, create the directory
/usr/X11R6 if it doesn't
already exist. Then run the pre-installation script,
preinst.sh. You should copy the script, and all of the archive files
for your system to the
/var/tmp directory before you run
/usr/X11R6 must be your current directory when you
run the pre-installation script and unpack the archives.
You should then unpack the files from
/usr/X11R6 with a command like:
tar files are packed relative to
must unpack the files there. On some Linux distributions, the parent
After you have upacked the required files and any optional files you
selected, run the post-installation script
Now link the file
/usr/X11R6/bin/X to the server that supports
your video card. For example, the SVGA color server,
/usr/bin/X11/X should be linked to
/usr/X11R6/bin/XF86_SVGA. To use the monochrome server instead,
XF86_MONO with the command
The same holds true for the other servers.
You also need to ensure that the directory,
is on your path. This can be done by editing your system default
/etc/csh.login (based on the shell that you, or
other users on your system, use). Or you can simply add the directory
to your personal path by modifying
/etc/.cshrc, based on your shell.
Finally, ensure that
/usr/X11R6/lib can be located by
ld.so, the run time linker. To do this, add the line
to the file
/etc/ld.so.conf, and run
If you aren't sure which server to use or don't know the video card's
chip set, the
SuperProbe program, which is found in
/usr/X11R6/bin, can attempt to determine the video chip set and other
information. Write down its output for later reference.
To run SuperProbe from the command line, simply enter
It is possible that
SuperProbe will confuse hardware
that uses I/O port addresses that might be used by video cards. To
prevent SuperProbe from checking these addresses, use the
argument, followed by a list of addresses that
not examine. For example:
The addresses are given as hexadecimal numbers that are prefixed by
To display a list of video devices that SuperProbe knows about, use
SuperProbe can print lots of information if you provide it with
-verbose argument. You can redirect the output to a file:
Running SuperProbe can cause the system to hang. Make certain that any non-essential applications are not running, or at least have all of their data safely saved to disk, and ensure that any users are logged off. Also, a loaded system (one that is printing in the background, for example), can skew the output of software like SuperProbe or an X server that is trying to measure the video card's timing specifications.
XF86Config file by hand is an arduous task, but it
is not impossible. Several tools in the XFree86 version 3.3.1 can
assist you. One of them, the
XF86Setup program, can
automatically generate an XF86Config file in the correct format. You
must know the exact specifications of your video board and the
Vertical and Horizontal refresh values of your monitor. Most of the
information can be found in the owner's manuals.
Several other configuration programs are available as well, depending
on the Linux distribution. The most common ones are
xf86config. The latter program is an older
XF86Setup and is included in older releases of
XFree86. You should always use
XF86Setup if both it and
xf86config are available.
In this section, we describe how to create and edit the
XF86Config file, which configures the XFree86 server. In many cases,
it is best to start with an XFree86 configuration that uses a low
resolution like 640x480 that is supported by nearly all video cards
and monitors. Once XFree86 works at a lower, standard resolution, you
can tweak the configuration to exploit the capabilities of your video
hardware. This ensures that XFree86 works on your system, and that the
installation is essentailly correct, before you attempt the sometimes
difficult task of setting up XFree86 for high-performance use.
In addition to the information listed here, you should read the following documents:
- The XFree86 documentation in
XFree86-3.1-docpackage). You should especially see the file
README.Config, which is an XFree86 configuration tutorial.
- Several video chip sets have separate
READMEfiles in the above directory (like
README.S3). Read the file that applies to your video card.
- The manual page for
- The manual page for
- The manual page for the server that you are using, like
The main XFree86 configuration file is
/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XF86Config. This file contains information for
your mouse, video card parameters, and so on. The file
XF86Config.eg is provided with the XFree86 distribution as an
example. Copy this file to
XF86Config and edit it as a starting
XF86Config manual page explains the format of the
XF86Config file. Read the manual page if you have not done so
We are going to describe a sample
XF86Config file, a section at
a time. This file may not look exactly like the sample file included
in the XFree86 distribution, but the structure is the same.
Note that the
XF86Config file format may change
with each version of XFree86. See your distribution's release notes
Do not copy the configuration file
listed here to your system and try to use it. A configuration file
that does not correspond to your hardware can drive the monitor at a
frequency which is too high. There have been reports of damage to
monitors, especially fixed-frequency monitors, that has been caused by
XF86Config files. Make absolutely
sure that your
XF86Config file corresponds to your hardware
before you use it.
Each section of the
XF86Config file is surrounded by a pair of
lines with the syntax,
The first section of the
XF86Config file is
looks like this:
RgbPath line sets the path to the X11R6 RGB color database,
FontPath line sets the path to a directory containing
X11 fonts. You shouldn't have to modify these lines. Simply ensure
FontPath entry exists for each font type that you have
installed; that is, for each directory in
The next section is
ServerFlags, which specifies several global
flags for the server. In general this section is empty.
ServerFlags section, all of the lines are commented out.
The next section is
Keyboard. This example shows a basic
configuration that should work on most systems. The
file describes how to modify the configuration.
The next section is
Pointer, which specifies parameters for the
For the moment, the only options that should concern you are
Protocol specifies the mouse
protocol, which is not necessarily the same as the manufacturer.
XFree86 under Linux recognizes these mouse protocols:
BusMouseshould be used for the Logitech bus mice. Older Logitech mice use
Logitech, and newer Logitech serial mice use either
Device specifies the device file by which the mouse can be
accessed. On most Linux systems, this is
/dev/mouse, which is
usually a link to the appropriate serial port, like
for serial mice and the appropriate bus mouse device for bus mice. At
any rate, be sure that the device file exists.
The next section is
Monitor, which specifies the characteristics
of your monitor. As with other sections in the
there may be more than one
Monitor section. This is useful if
you have multiple monitors connected to a system, or use the same
XF86Config file for multiple hardware configurations.
Identifier is an arbitrary name for the
entry. This can be any string and is used to refer to the
Monitor entry later in the
HorizSync specifies the valid horizontal sync frequencies for
your monitor, in kHz. Multisync monitors may have a range of values,
or several, comma separated ranges. Fixed-frequency monitors require
a list of discrete values; for example:
The monitor manual should list these values in the technical specifications section. If it does not, contact the manufacturer or vendor of your monitor to obtain it.
VertRefresh specifies the valid vertical refresh rates (or
vertical synchronization frequencies) for your monitor, in kHz. Like
HorizSync, this can be a range or a list of discrete values.
Your monitor manual should list them.
VertRefresh are used only to double-check
that the monitor resolutions are in valid ranges. This reduces the
chance that you will damage your monitor by driving it at a frequency
which it was not designed for.
ModeLine directive is used to specify resolution modes for
your monitor. The format is
name is an arbitrary string which you will use to refer to the resolution mode later in the file. dot-clock is the driving clock frequency, or ``dot clock'' associated with the resolution mode. A dot clock is usually specified in MHz. It is the rate at which the video card must send pixels to the monitor at this resolution. horiz-values and vert-values are four numbers each that specify when the electron gun of the monitor should fire, and when the horizontal and vertical sync pulses fire during a sweep.
VideoModes.doc, included with the XFree86 distribution,
describes in detail how to determine the
ModeLine values for
each resolution mode that your monitor supports. clock must
correspond to one of the dot clock values that your video card
supports. Later in the
XF86Config file, you will specify these
Monitors, may have
ModeLine information for your monitor. They are located in
ModeLine values for VESA-standard monitor timings,
because most monitors support them.
ModeDB.txt includes the
timing values for VESA-standard resolutions. For example, this entry,
is the VESA-standard timing for a 640x480 video mode. It has a dot clock of 25.175, which your video card must support. This is described below. To include this entry in the
use the line
The name argument to
is an arbitrary string. By convention modes are named by their
resolutions, but name can, technically, be any descriptive
ModeLine, the server checks the mode specifications and
ensures that they fall in the range of values specified for
VertRefresh. If they do not,
the server complains when you attempt to start X. For one thing, the
dot clock used by the mode should not be greater than the value used
Bandwidth. However, in many cases, it is safe to use a mode
that has a slightly higher bandwidth than your monitor can support.
If the VESA standard timings do not work, (you'll know after you try
to use them), then look in the files
Monitors, which include specific mode values for many monitor types.
You can create
ModeLine entries from these values as well. Be
sure only to use values for your specific monitor. Many 14 and 15-inch
monitors do not support higher resolution modes, and often resolutions
of 1024x768 at low dot clocks. If you can't find high-resolution modes
for your monitor in these files, then your monitor probably does not
If you are completely at a loss and can't find
for your monitor, follow the instructions in the
file, which is included in the XFree86 distribution, and generate
values from the specifications in your monitor's manual. Your mileage
will certainly vary when you attempt to generate
by hand. But this is a good place to look if you can't find the values
that you need.
VideoModes.doc also describes the format of the
ModeLine directive, and other aspects of the XFree86 server in
Lastly, if you do obtain
ModeLine values that are almost but not
exactly right, you may possibly be able to modify the values a little
to obtain the desired result. For example, if the XFree86 display
image is shifted slightly, or the image seems to ``roll,'' then follow
the instructions in the
VideoModes.doc file and fix the
values. Be sure to check the controls on the monitor itself. In many
cases, you must change the horizontal or vertical size of the display
after XFree86 starts, to center and size the image.
Don't use monitor timing values or
values for monitors other than your model. If you try to drive a
monitor at a frequency for which it was not designed, you can damage
or even destroy it.
The next section of the
XF86Config file is
which specifies parameters for your video card. Here is an example.
This section defines properties for a particular video card.
Identifier is an arbitrary, descriptive string. You will use this
string to refer to the card later.
Initially, you don't need to include anything in the
section except the
Identifier. We will use the X server itself
to probe for the properties of the video card and enter them into the
Device section later. The XFree86 server is capable of probing
for the video chip set, clocks, RAMDAC, and amount of video RAM on the
board. This is described in Section 5.6.
Before we do this, however, we need to finish writing the
file. The next section is
Screen, which specifies the monitor/video
card combination to use for a particular server.
Driver line specifies the X server that you will be using.
Driver values are:
Accel: For the
SVGA: For the
VGA16: For the
VGA2: For the
Mono: For the non-VGA monochrome drivers in the
/usr/X11R6/bin/Xis a symbolic link to this server.
Device line specifies the
Identifier of the
Device section that corresponds to the video card to use for this
server. Above, we created a
Device section with the line
Therefore, we use
"#9 GXE 64"
Device line here.
Monitor line specifies the name of the
section to be used with this server. Here,
"CTX 5468 NI"
Identifier used in the
Monitor section described above.
defines several properties of the
XFree86 server corresponding to your monitor/video card combination.
XF86Config file describes all of these options in detail.
Most of them are not necessary to get the system working.
The options that you should know about are:
Depth. Defines the number of color planes; that is, the number of bits per pixel. Usually,
Depthis set to 16. For the
VGA16server, you would use a depth of 4, and for the monochrome server a depth of 1. If you use an accelerated video card with enough memory to support more bits per pixel, you can set
Depthto 24, or 32. If you have problems with depths higher than 16, set it back to 16 and attempt to debug the problem later.
Modes. This is the list of mode names which have been defined using the
ModeLinedirective(s) in the
Monitorsection. In the above section, we used
. Therefore, we use a
The first mode listed on this line is the default when XFree86 starts. After XFree86 is running, you can switch between the modes listed here using the keys Ctrl-Alt-Numeric + and Ctrl-Alt-Numeric -.
It might be best, when you initially configure XFree86, to use lower resolution video modes like 640x480, which tend to work with most systems. Once you have the basic configuration working, you can modify
XF86Configto support higher resolutions.
Virtual. Set the virtual desktop size. XFree86 can use additional memory on your video card to extend the size of the desktop. When you move the mouse pointer to the edge of the display, the desktop scrolls, bringing the additional space into view. Even if you run the server at a lower video resolution like 800x600, you can set
Virtualto the total resolution that your video card can support. A 1-megabyte video card can support 1024x768 at a depth of 8 bits per pixel; a 2-megabyte card 1280x1024 at depth 8, or 1024x768 at depth 16. Of course, the entire area will not be visible at once, but it can still be used.
Virtualfeature is rather limited. If you want to use a true virtual desktop,
fvwmand similar window managers allow you to have large, virtual desktops by hiding windows and using other techniques, instead of storing the entire desktop in video memory. See the manual pages for
fvwmfor more details about this. Many Linux systems use
ViewPort. If you are using the
Virtualoption which is described above,
ViewPortsets the coordinates of the upper-left-hand corner of the virtual desktop when XFree86 starts up.
Virtual 0 0is often used. If this is unspecified, then the desktop is centered on the virtual desktop display, which may be undesirable to you.
Many other options for this section exist; see the
manual page for a complete description. In practice, these options are
not necessary to get XFree86 working initially.
XF86Config file is now ready, with the exception of
complete information on the video card. We'll use the X server to
probe for this information, and add it to
Instead of probing for this information with the X server,
XF86Config values for many cards are listed in the files
Devices. These files are all
/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc. In addition, there are various
README files for certain chip sets. You should look at these
files for information on your video card and use that information (the
clock values, chip set type, and any options) in the
file. If any information is missing, you can probe for it.
In most of these examples we demonstrate configuration of a
#9 GXE 64 video card, which uses the
First, determine the video chip set on the card. Running
SuperProbe (found in
/usr/X11R6/bin) tells you this
information, but you need to know the chip set name as it is known to
the X server.
To do this, run the command
This gives the chip set names known to the X server. (The manual pages for each X server list these, too.) For example, with the accelerated
XF86_S3 server, we get:
The valid chip set names for this server are
XF86_S3 man page describes these chip sets
and video cards that use them. In the case of the #9 GXE 64 video
mmio_928 is appropriate.
If you don't know which chip set is in use, the X server can probe it
for you. To do this, run the command
if you use
bash as your shell.
If you use
You should run this command while the system is unloaded; that is, while no other activity occurs on the system. This command also probes for your video card dot clocks (as seen below), and system load can throw off this calculation.
The output from the above, in
/tmp/x.out, should contain lines
Here, we see that the two valid chip sets for this server (in this case,
server probed for and found a video card that has the
Device section of the
XF86Config file, add a
Chipset line that has the name of the chip set as determined
above. For example,
Now, we need to determine the driving clock frequencies used by the video card. A driving clock frequency, or dot clock, is simply a rate at which the video card can send pixels to the monitor. As described above, each monitor resolution has a dot clock associated with it. We need to determine which dot clocks are made available by the video card.
First, you should look at the documentation mentioned above and see if
the card's clocks are listed there. The dot clocks are usually a list
of 8 or 16 values, all of which are in MHz. For example, when looking
modeDB.txt, we see an entry for the Cardinal ET4000 video
card, which looks like:
The dot clocks for this card are 25, 28, 38, 36, 40, 45, 32, and 0 MHz.
Devices section of the
XF86Config file, add a
Clocks line containing the list of dot clocks for your card. For
example, for the clocks above, add the line
Devices section of the file, after
The order of the dot clocks is important. Don't re-sort the list or remove duplicates.
If you cannot find the dot clocks associated with your card, the X
server can probe for these, too. Use
X -probeonly as described
above. The output should contain lines which look like the following:
We can then add a
Clocks line which contains all of these
values, as printed. You can use more than one
Clocks line in
XF86Config if all of the values (sometimes there are more than 8
clock values printed) do not fit onto one line. Again, be sure to keep
the list of clocks in the order that they are displayed.
Be sure that there is no
Clocks line (or that it is commented
out) in the
Devices section of the file when using
-probeonly. If there is a
Clocks line present, the server does
not probe for the clocks--it uses the values given in
Some video boards use a programmable clock chip. See the manual page
for your X server or the XFree86
README file that describes your
video card. The chip essentially allows the X server to tell the card
the dot clocks to use. For video cards that have clock chips, you may
not find a list of dot clocks for the card in any of the above
files. Or, the list of dot clocks printed when using
-probeonly will only contain one or two discrete clock values, with
the rest being duplicates or zero. Or, the X server may provide an
explicit warning that the video card has a programmable clock chip,
This example is taken from a
XF86_SVGA server running a Cirrus
Logic PCI card.
For boards which use programmable clock chips, you use a
ClockChip line instead of a
Clocks line in the
ClockChip is the name of the clock chip as used by the
video card; the manual pages for each server describe them. For
example, in the file
README.S3, we see that several S3-864 video
cards use an ``ICD2061A'' clock chip, and that we should use the line
Clocks in the
XF86Config file. As with
Clocks, this line goes in the
Devices section, after
Similarly, some video cards require that you specify the RAMDAC chip
type in the
XF86Config file. This is done with a
XF86_Accel man page describes this option. Often the
X server will correctly probe for the RAMDAC.
Some video card types require that you specify several options in the
Devices section of
XF86Config. These options are described
in the manual page for your server, as well as in the various files
README.S3. These options are
enabled using an
Option line. For example, the #9 GXE 64 card
requires two options:
An X server may work without the
Option lines, but they are
necessary to get the best performance out of the card. There are too
many options to list here. They are different for each card. If you
must use one, the X server manual pages and various files in
/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc will tell you what they are.
When you finish, you should have a
Devices section that looks
There are other options which you can include in the
entry. The X server manual pages provide the gritty details.
XF86Config file configured, you can fire up the X
server and give it a spin. Again, be sure that the
/usr/X11R6/bin directory is on your path.
The command to start XFree86 is
This is a front end to
xinit. It starts the X server and
executes the commands in the file
.xinitrc in your home
.xinitrc is a shell script that contains the command
lines of the X clients to run when the X server starts. If this file
does not exist, the system default
/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xinit/xinitrc is used.
.xinitrc file looks like this:
This script starts two
xterm clients and an
sets the root window (background) color to
twm, the window manager.
twm is executed with the
exec statement. This causes the
xinit process to
be replaced by
twm. After the
twm process exits, the X
server shuts down. You can cause
twm to exit by using the root
menu. Depress mouse button 1 on the desktop background. This displays
a pop-up menu that allows you to
Be sure that the last command in
.xinitrc is started with
exec, and that it is not placed into the background (no ampersand at
the end of the line). Otherwise the X server will shut down
immediately after it starts the clients in the
Alternately, you can exit X by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace in combination. This kills the X server directly, exiting the window system.
The above is a only a simple desktop configuration.
Again, we suggest that you read a book like The X Window System:
A User's Guide (see Appendix A). The possible
variations of X usage and configuration are too many to describe
twm manual pages will
provide you clues on how to begin.
Often, something will not be quite right when you first start the X
server. This is nearly always caused by something in your
XF86Config file. Usually, the monitor timing values or the video card
dot clocks are set incorrectly. If the display seems to roll, or the
edges are fuzzy, this indicates that the monitor timing values or dot
clocks are wrong. Also, be sure that you correctly specified the video
card chip set and options in the
Device section of
XF86Config. Be absolutely sure that you are using the correct X
server and that
/usr/X11R6/bin/X is a symbolic link to it.
If all else fails, try to start X ``bare''; that is, with a command
You can then kill the X server (using Ctrl-Alt-Backspace) and examine the contents of
/tmp/x.out. The X server reports any warnings or
errors--for example, if your video card doesn't have a dot clock
corresponding to a mode supported by your monitor.
VideoModes.doc, which is included in the XFree86
distribution, contains many hints for adjusting the values in your
Remember that you can use Ctrl-Alt-Numeric + and
Ctrl-Alt-Numeric - to switch between the video modes
listed on the
Modes line of the
Screen section of
XF86Config. If the highest resolution mode doesn't look right, try
switching to a lower resolution. This lets you know, at least, that
those parts of your X configuration are working correctly.
Also, adjust the vertical and horizontal size/hold knobs on your monitor. In many cases, it is necessary to adjust these when starting up X. For example, if the display seems to be shifted slightly to one side, you can usually correct this using the monitor controls.
Again, the USENET newsgroup
comp.windows.x.i386unix is devoted
to discussions about XFree86. It might be a good idea to read the
newsgroups for postings related to video configuration. You might run
across someone with the same problem.
There are also sample
XF86Config files which have been
contributed by users. Some of these are available on the
sunsite.unc.edu archive in the
/pub/Linux/X11 directory, and
elsewhere. You might find a configuration file that somebody has
already written for your hardware.
Next: 6 Networking Up: Linux Installation and Getting Previous: 4 System Administration Clarica Grove
Wed Mar 4 10:46:42 PST 1998