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Книги по Linux (с отзывами читателей)

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A.3. Construction

A.3.1. Create an enhanced boot disk

A.3.1.1. Build a new kernel

bash# cd /usr/src/linux
bash# make menuconfig

Be sure to configure support for the following:

  • 386 processor

  • Floppy disk

  • RAM disk

  • Second extended (ext2) filesystem

  • Virtual console

  • Audio hardware

  • CD-ROM hardware

  • ISO-9660 and Joliet filesystems

bash# make dep
bash# make clean
bash# make bzImage

A.3.1.2. Copy the kernel to diskette

Place the boot disk in drive fd0

bash# mount /dev/fd0 /mnt
bash# cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /mnt/boot/vmlinuz

A.3.1.3. Unmount the boot disk

bash# cd /
bash# umount /mnt

A.3.2. Create an enhanced root disk

A.3.2.1. Create additional device files

A.3.2.1.1. IDE CD-ROM

bash# mknod -m640 ~/staging/dev/hdc b 22 0
bash# mknod -m640 ~/staging/dev/hdd b 22 64

Optionally create additional IDE devices.

A.3.2.1.2. Ramdisk

bash# mknod -m 640 ~/staging/dev/ram1 b 1 1
bash# mknod -m 640 ~/staging/dev/ram2 b 1 2 
bash# mknod -m 640 ~/staging/dev/ram3 b 1 3
bash# mknod -m 640 ~/staging/dev/ram4 b 1 4
bash# mknod -m 640 ~/staging/dev/ram5 b 1 5
bash# mknod -m 640 ~/staging/dev/ram6 b 1 6
bash# mknod -m 640 ~/staging/dev/ram7 b 1 7

A.3.2.1.3. Audio

bash# mknod -m664 ~/staging/dev/dsp c 14 3
bash# mknod -m664 ~/staging/dev/mixer c 14 0

A.3.2.2. Install the gunzip binary

bash# cd /usr/src/gzip-1.2.4a
bash# export CC="gcc -mcpu=i386"
bash# ./configure --host=i386-pc-linux-gnu
bash# make
bash# strip gzip
bash# cp gzip ~/staging/bin
bash# ln -s gzip ~/staging/bin/gunzip

Don't forget to verify library requirements, check the ownership and check permissions on the gzip binary.

A.3.2.3. Write a startup script to mount a compressed floppy

Use a text editor to create the following script and save it as ~/staging/etc/init.d/usr_image

#!/bin/sh
#
# usr_image - load compressed images from floppy into ramdisk and
#             mount on /usr.
#
echo -n "Is there a compressed diskette to load for /usr [y/N]? "
read REPLY
if [ "$REPLY" = "y" ] || [ "$REPLY" = "Y" ]; then
  echo -n "Please insert the /usr floppy into fd0 and press <ENTER>."
  read REPLY
  echo "Clearing /dev/ram1."
  dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ram1 bs=1k count=4096
  echo "Loading compressed image from /dev/fd0 into /dev/ram1..."
  (dd if=/dev/fd0 bs=1k | gunzip -cq) >/dev/ram1 2>/dev/null
  fsck -fp /dev/ram1
  if [ $? -gt 1 ]; then
    echo "Filesystem errors on /dev/ram1!  Manual intervention required."
  else
    echo "Mounting /usr."
    mount /dev/ram1 /usr
  fi
fi
#
# end of usr_image

Configure the script to run right after root is mounted.

bash# ln -s ../init.d/usr_image ~/staging/etc/rcS.d/S21usr_image

A.3.2.4. Create a compressed root disk

bash# cd /
bash# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ram7 bs=1k count=4096
bash# mke2fs -m0 /dev/ram7
bash# mount /dev/ram7 /mnt
bash# cp -dpR ~/staging/* /mnt
bash# umount /dev/ram7
bash# dd if=/dev/ram7 of=~/phase8-image bs=1k
bash# gzip -9 ~/phase8-image

Insert the diskette labeled "root disk" into drive fd0.

bash# dd if=~/phase8-image.gz of=/dev/fd0 bs=1k

A.3.3. Create a compressed /usr disk for mp3blaster

The compressed /usr diskette will be created in using the same process that is used to create the compressed root disk. We will copy files to a staging area, copy the staging area to ramdisk, compress the ramdisk and write it to diskette.

A.3.3.1. Create a staging area

bash# mkdir ~/usr-staging
bash# cd ~/usr-staging
bash# mkdir bin lib
bash# mkdir -p share/terminfo/l

A.3.3.2. Install the mp3blaster program

Download the latest version of mp3blaster source code from its home at http://www.stack.nl/~brama/mp3blaster/.

bash# cd ~/usr/src/mp3blaster-3.2.0
bash# ./configure
bash# make
bash# cp src/mp3blaster ~/usr-staging/bin

A.3.3.3. Copy additional libraries and terminfo

Use ldd to find out which libraries are needed for mp3blaster.

The following is an example from the author's development system. It is possible that different systems may yield slightly different results in terms of library requirements.

bash# cd ~/usr-staging/lib
bash# ldd ~/usr-staging/bin/mp3blaster
bash# cp /usr/lib/ncurses.so.5.0  .
bash# cp /usr/lib/stdc++.so.3 .
bash# cp /lib/libm.so.6 .
bash# cp /usr/lib/libgcc_s.so.1 .
bash# cd ~/usr-staging/share/terminfo/l
bash# cp /usr/share/terminfo/l/linux .

A.3.3.4. Make a compressed image and copy it to diskette

bash# cd /
bash# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ram7 bs=1k count=4096
bash# mke2fs -m0 /dev/ram7
bash# mount /dev/ram7 /mnt
bash# cp -dpR ~/usr-staging/* /mnt
bash# umount /dev/ram7
bash# dd if=/dev/ram7 of=~/mp3blaster-image bs=1k
bash# gzip -9 ~/mp3blaster-image

Insert the diskette labeled "mp3blaster" into drive fd0.

bash# dd if=~/mp3blaster-image.gz of=/dev/fd0 bs=1k

A.3.4. Create a data diskette for testing

Go to the Internet site http://www.paul.sladen.org and download the mp3 file of Linus Torvalds pronouncing "Linux." The direct link is: http://www.paul.sladen.org/pronunciation/torvalds-says-linux.mp3. Create a Second Extended (ext2) filesystem on a floppy and copy the mp3 file onto the diskette.

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