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O'Reilly Online Catalog

Linux Device Drivers, 2nd Edition

Index

[═Numbers═], [═A═], [═B═], [═C═], [═D═], [═E═], [═F═], [═G═], [═H═], [═I═], [═J═], [═K═], [═L═], [═M═], [═N═], [═O═], [═P═], [═Q═], [═R═], [═S═], [═T═], [═U═], [═V═], [═W═], [═X═], [═Z═]

Numbers[═Top═]
16-bit hardware addresses (PCI), 471
16-bit PCI registers, 476
16-bit ports, 230
═══string functions for, 232
32-bit addresses
═══PCI bus I/O and memory space, 473
32-bit PCI registers, 483, 485-488
32-bit ports, 230
═══string functions for, 232
64-bit addresses
═══accessing PCI bus memory space, 473
64-bit programmable decoder, 485
64-bit regions and PCI registers, 483
8-bit ports, 230
═══reading/writing, 230
═══string functions for, 232

A[═Top═]
access
═══blocking open requests, 168
═══cloning devices on open, 169-171
═══concurrent (see race conditions)
═══to device files, 164-171
═══to drivers, 59
═══to expansion board memory, 238-247
═══PCI configuration space, 480-483
═══restricting
═════ to simultaneous users, 167
═════ via capabilities, 137
═══to user space in Linux 2.0, 173-175
access_ok(), 135
active queue heads, 342
add_timer(), 201-203, 207
__add_wait_queue(), 287, 292
add_wait_queue_exclusive(), 146, 179
add_wait_queue(), 179, 287, 292
Address Resolution Protocol (see ARP)
address types, 371
addresses
═══bus (see bus addresses)
═══hardware (see hardware addresses)
═══PCI, 471-474
═══for peripheral boards, 473
═══Plug and Play, 496
═══resolving, 455-458
Adelson-Velski-Landis (AVL) tree, 515
alias directive (modprobe), 308
aliases for device names, 69
alignment, data, 299
alloc_bootmem_low_pages(), 221, 225
alloc_bootmem_low(), 221, 225
alloc_bootmem_pages(), 221, 225
alloc_bootmem(), 221, 225
alloc_kiovec(), 396, 422
═══map_user_kiobuf and, 399
alloc_skb(), 454, 468
allocate_resource structure, 41
allocating
═══DMA buffers, 402-404
═══major device numbers, 57-61
═══memory, 36, 73-75
═════ at boot time, 221-223
═════ determining how much, 211
═════ kmalloc for, 208-211
═════ by page, 214-217
═════ vmalloc for, 217-220
═══ports, 36-41
═══resources in Linux 2.4, 40
═══socket buffers, 449, 454
allocator module, 223
Alpha architecture
═══I/O memory management support, 411
═══porting and, 233
alpha_machine_vector structure, 494
analyzing crash dumps, 125
applications vs. kernel modules, 16-21
arch directory, 517
ARM architecture
═══layout of boot code, 510
═══PCI DMA interface support, 411
═══porting and, 233
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
═══Ethernet and, 455
═══IFF_NOARP flag and, 432, 438
═══overriding, 456
asm directory, 17
<asm/atomic.h> header file, 285, 291
<asm/bitops.h> header file, 284, 291
<asm/byteorder.h> header file, 298, 304
<asm/current.h> header file, 21
<asm/dma.h> header file, 414, 416, 423
<asm/io.h> header file, 249, 422
═══accessing I/O ports, 230
═══converting between bus/virtual addresses, 404
<asm/ioctl.h> header file, 130
<asm/irq.h> header file, 262, 267
<asm/msr.h> header file, 183, 205
<asm/page.h> header file, 297, 303, 372, 376
<asm/pcibios.h> header file, 502
<asm/pgtable.h> header file, 218, 377
<asm/processor.h> header file, 497
<asm/sbus.h> header file, 412
<asm/segment.h> header file, 95
<asm/semaphore.h> header file, 76, 95
<asm/system.h> header file, 228, 249
<asm/types.h> header file, 295
<asm/uaccess.h> header file, 78, 95, 135, 177
<asm/unaligned.h> header file, 299, 304
assembly language dump of code, 116
asynchronous DMA, 401
asynchronous notification, 159-162
═══backward compatibility issues, 173
═══drivers and, 161
asynchronous running of task queues, 191
atomic_add_and_test(), 286
atomic_add(), 286, 291
atomic bit operations, 284
═══backward compatibility issues, 289
atomic_dec_and_test(), 286, 291
atomic_dec(), 286, 291
atomic_inc_and_test(), 286
atomic_inc(), 286, 291
atomic integer operations, 285
atomic_read(), 286
atomic_set(), 286
atomic_sub_and_test(), 286
atomic_sub(), 286, 291
atomic_t data type, 285
atomic.h header file, 285, 291
autoconf.h header file, 316
autodetecting parameter values, 42
autoirq_report(), 260
autoirq_setup(), 260
automatic
═══device parameters detection, 43
═══driver configuration, 43
═══IRQ number detection, 258-262
═════ shared interrupts and, 276
═══module loading/unloading, 305-311
AVL (Adelson-Velski-Landis) tree, 515

B[═Top═]
b_end_io(), 339, 368
═══clustered I/O, 341
═══"make request" function and, 346
backward compatibility
═══access to user space, 173-175
═══asynchronous notification, 173
═══block drivers, 364-366
═══capabilities, 175
═══compiling for multiprocessor systems, 48
═══demand-loading capability, 318
═══DMA (direct memory access), 420
═══exporting symbols, 48-50
═══file_operations structure, 91-93
═══fsync method, 173
═══hardware management, 248
═══interrupt handling, 288
═══memory management, 418-420
═════ programming interface, 223
═══module configuration parameters, 50
═══module usage count, 93
═══networking, 464-466
═══peripheral buses, 502
═══resource management, 47
═══seeking, 176
═══select method in Linux version 2.0, 175
═══semaphore support, 94
═══task queues/timing issues, 204
═══user space, access to, 94
═══wait queues, 172
barrier(), 228, 249
base address registers, 485-488
base module parameter, 237
base name, device, 356
bdops (see block_device_operations structure)
bfd (binary format description) library and ksymoops, 116
BH (see bottom halves)
bh->b_end_io(), 339, 368
═══clustered I/O, 341
═══"make request" function and, 346
bibliography, 527
__BIG_ENDIAN symbol, 298, 304
big-endian byte order, 298
bigphysarea patch, 222
binary format description (bfd) library and ksymoops, 116
binary formats, 513
binfmt_elf.c file, 513
bit operations, 284
═══backward compatibility issues, 289
bit specifications, 236
bit splitting and minor numbers, 69
bitfields, defining ioctl commands, 130, 177
bitops.h header file, 284, 291
bits, clearing, 264
blk_cleanup_queue(), 323, 366
BLK_DEFAULT_QUEUE macro, 324, 367
blk_dev global array, 324, 364, 367
blk_dev_struct structure, 324
blk_init_queue(), 323, 366
═══initializing device-specific queues, 343
blk_ioctl(), 351, 368, 518
═══backward compatibility issues, 365
blk_queue_headactive(), 342, 368
blk_queue_make_request(), 346, 368
blk_size global array, 324, 367
═══sizes array and, 357
blkdev_dequeue_request(), 338, 368
═══end_request() and, 340
blkdev_entry_next_request(), 337, 368
blkdev_next_request(), 337, 368
blkdev_prev_request(), 337, 368
blkdev_release_request(), 338, 368
blkdev.h header file, 323, 366
BLKELVGET command, 351
BLKELVSET command, 351
BLKFLSBUF command, 350
BLKFRAGET command, 350
BLKFRASET command, 350
BLKGETSIZE command, 349, 361
blk.h header file, 328-330, 367
═══clustered requests and, 340
═══declaring DEVICE_NR first, 361
═══how macros and functions work, 339
BLKPG command, 350
blkpg.c file, 518
blkpg.h header file, 351
BLKRAGET command, 350
BLKRASET command, 350
BLKROGET command, 350
BLKROSET command, 350
BLKRRPART command, 350, 361
BLKSECTGET command, 350
BLKSECTSET command, 350
blksize_size global array, 324, 367
BLKSSZGET command, 350
block_dev.c file, 513
block_device_operations structure, 322
═══backward compatibility issues, 364
═══I/O operations, 323
═══removable devices, 352
block drivers, 7
═══arrays for information about, 324
═══backward compatibility, 364-366
═══generic hard disk support, 356
═══handling requests, 330-348
═══interrupt-driven, 362-364
═══io_request_lock and, 338
═══ioctl method and, 349-352
═══<linux/blk.h> header file (see blk.h header file)
═══loading/unloading, 321-354
═══mounting devices, 348
═══multiqueue, 342-345
═══partitionable devices and, 355-362
═══raw I/O capability, 397
═══registering/unregistering, 322-328
═══removable block devices, 352-354
═══vs. char drivers, 321
block_fsync method, 158, 328
blocking I/O operations, 141-153
═══blocking open requests, 168
═══testing, 153
BogoMips value, 188
books
═══Linux kernel, 527
═══Unix design/internals, 528
booting
═══acquiring a dedicated buffer at, 221
═══allocating memory while, 221-223
═══kernels, 507-509
═══(non)modularized drivers and, 434
═══PCI and, 474
═══what happens before, 509-511
bootmem.h header file, 221, 225
bottom halves
═══BH mechanism, 271
═══of interrupt handlers, 269-274
═══marking, 272
═══task queues, 190, 197
═══tasklets and, 198-200, 270
═══writing, 273
bounce buffers, 406
═══architectures not supporting, 411
═══streaming DMA mappings and, 409
bridge subdirectory, 516
bridges for PCI systems, 471
═══ignored by pcidata module, 482
BSS segments, 379
buffer cache and request structure, 335
buffer_head structure, 332
═══fields for, 335
═══performing clustered I/O, 341
buffer.c file, 513
buffering and interrupt-driven I/O, 278
buffers
═══buffer overruns, 112
═══DMA, 402-404
═══for printk(), 100
═══in request queues, 336
═══socket (see socket buffers)
═══user-space and raw I/O, 397-400
bugs (see debugging; troubleshooting)
bus addresses, 372
═══converting between virtual addresses and, 404
═══dma_addr_t type and, 406
═══DMA-based hardware and, 404
bus architecture, 470-505
═══backward compatibility issues, 502
═══device-specific directories, 523
═══ISA interface, 494-496
═══PC/104 and PC/104+, 496
═══PCI interface, 470-494
bus_to_virt(), 404, 422
busy loops, 186
busy waiting implementation, 186
byte order
═══PCI registers and, 475, 480
═══portability and, 298
byteorder.h header file, 298, 304
bzImage file, 510

C[═Top═]
caches, lookaside, 211-214
═══backward compatibility issues, 223
caching problems for devices, 228, 385
call_usermodehelper(), 311, 320
CAP_DAC_OVERRIDE capability, 137
═══single-user access to devices, 168
CAP_NET_ADMIN capability, 137
CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability, 137
CAP_SYS_MODULE capability, 137
CAP_SYS_RAWIO capability, 137
CAP_SYS_TTY_CONFIG capability, 137
capabilities
═══restricted operations and, 137
═══testing for, using request_module, 306
capability.h header file, 137, 178
capable(), 137, 178
Card Select Number (CSN), 496
cardctl program, 3
carrier signals, 451
cdrom_device_info structure, 520
cdrom.c file, 520
CFLAGS variable (make), 23
change_bit(), 284, 291
change_mtu method, 441
═══improving performance using socket buffers, 449
channels, DMA, 413-415
char drivers, 6, 54-96
═══defining mechanism of, 54
═══version numbers, 55-62
═══vs. block drivers, 321
check_disk_change(), 354, 369
check_media_change method, 353
═══backward compatibility issues, 364
check_mem_region(), 53, 250
═══backward compatibility issues, 47
═══working with I/O memory, 40, 239
check_region(), 52, 250
═══backward compatibility issues, 47
═══working with I/O ports, 38, 229
CHECKSUM_ symbols, 449
checksums
═══adding to symbol names, 314
═══building, 317
circular buffers, 279
═══implementing interrupt handlers, 264-266
═══for printk(), 100
claim_dma_lock(), 416, 424
class PCI register, 476
classes, module, 6-8
cleanup_module(), 16, 50
═══error handling and, 31
═══network drivers and, 434
═══releasing ports, 39
═══unregistering items, 34
═══using unique names instead of, 34
clear_bit(), 284, 291
clear_dma_ff(), 417, 424
CLEAR_INTR macro, 329
clearing bits on interface board, 264
cli(), 252
clock cycles, counting, 182
clock ticks (see jiffies value)
cloning devices on open requests, 169-171
close method, 72
═══accessing data within partitions, 360
═══adding VMA operations, 386
═══after cloning devices on open, 171
═══for single-open devices, 165
═══vm_operations_struct structure, 381
═══(see also release method)
closing network interface, 443-445
clustered requests, 340
code, delaying execution of, 186-189
coding style, 23
collisions, device, 36, 38
command numbers, ioctl, 130-133
command-line parsing, 507
command-oriented drivers, 140
compiler optimizations, 227
concurrency, 20, 278-288
═══controlling transmission, 446
═══multiqueue block drivers and, 345
concurrent access (see race conditions)
conditional compilation, avoiding, 90
CONFIG_DEVFS_FS, 85
═══portability issues and, 90
CONFIG_MODVERSIONS(), 316, 320
CONFIG_PCI(), 477, 503
CONFIG_SMP configuration option, 48
config.h header file, 316, 320, 477, 503
configuration space, PCI, 473, 480-483
configuration transactions, PCI, 473
configuring
═══DMA controller, 415-418
═══drivers, 42-44
═══network devices, 441
═══PCI registers, 475-479
consistent DMA mappings, 406
═══setting up, 407
console_loglevel variable, 98
═══debugging system hangs, 118
console.c file, 518, 522
consoles
═══drivers/char directory and, 518
═══frame buffer consoles, 522
═══selecting for messages, 99
═══wrong font on, 140
constructor function (kmem_cache_create), 212
controlling access (see access)
controlling-by-write, 140
converting virtual addresses, 404
__copy_from_user, 79, 96
copy_from_user(), 79
═══memcpy_tofs and, 94
═══vmalloc() and, 218
__copy_to_user, 79, 96
copy_to_user(), 79
═══memcpy_fromfs and, 94
═══using put_user() instead of, 136
copying, cross-space, 78
core files, 120
core-file (gdb command), 121
core/skbuff.c file, 516
counter registers, 182
CPU modalities (levels), 19
__cpu_to_le32 macro, 298, 304
crash dump analyzers, 125
CRC (cyclic redundancy check) algorithm and module version control, 314
create_bounce(), 348
create_module system call, 9
═══using vmalloc() and, 218
create_proc_read_entry(), 106
cross compilation and platform dependency, 27
cross-space copying, 78
CSN (Card Select Number), 496
CURRENT_DEV macro, 329, 332
current_nr_sectors field, 332
current process, 21, 52
current time, retrieving, 184
current.h header file, 21
currentime file (jit module), 185
CURRENT(), 330, 368
═══accessing fields in request structure, 332
custom
═══data types, 296
═══ioctl methods for networking, 458
═══task queues, 198
cycles_t type, 183

D[═Top═]
data
═══explicitly sizing, 295
═══physical packet transport, 429, 445-450
═══protecting from race conditions, 279
═══transferring
═════ for block driver requests, 332-334
═════ with DMA, 401-418
═════ using ioctl method, 131
═══unaligned, portability and, 299
data structures, portability of, 299
data types
═══for explicitly sizing data, 295
═══interface-specific, 296
═══loose typing for I/O functions, 297
═══mixing different, 294
═══portability and, 293-297
═══standard C types, 293
dataalign program, 300
datasize program, 293
dcache.c file, 513
dd utility and scull driver example, 73
deadlocks
═══avoiding, 77
═══detecting with IKD, 124
deallocating (see allocating)
debugging, 97-127
═══using a debugger, 120-127
═══using Dynamic Probes, 127
═══using gdb, 120-122
═══using IKD (integrated kernel debugger), 124
═══implementing debug levels, 102
═══interrupt handling, 267
═══with ioctl method, 108
═══using kdb kernel debugger, 122-124
═══using kgdb, 125
═══using Linux Trace Toolkit (LTT), 127
═══locked keyboard, 118
═══module loading, 24
═══modules, 113-118
═══by printing, 97-103
═══with /proc filesystem, 103-107
═══by querying, 103-108
═══race conditions, 278-288
═══system faults, 110-120
═══system hangs, 118
═══using User-Mode Linux, 126
═══by watching in user space, 108-110
═══(see also troubleshooting)
DECLARE_TASK_QUEUE, 191, 198, 206
DECLARE_TASKLET, 199, 206, 270, 290
DECLARE_TASKLET_DISABLED, 199, 206
DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD, 141, 143
═══jiq module and , 193
decoders, programmable, 485
decoding oops messages, 113-118
DEFAULT_CONSOLE_LOGLEVEL, 98
DEFAULT_MESSAGE_LOGLEVEL, 98
del_timer_sync(), 202, 207
═══avoiding race conditions, 203
═══backward compatibility issues, 205
del_timer(), 202, 207
delay.h header file, 188, 206
delaying execution of code, 186-188
delete_module system call, 34
demand-loading modules, 305-311
═══slave/master modules example, 309
dentry field (file structure), 68
═══backward compatibility issues, 93
depmod program, 319
dereferencing
═══invalid pointers, 111-118
═══I/O pointers, not recommended, 240
═══memory addresses, 294
═══physical addresses, 240
destructor function (kmem_cache_create), 212
dev_alloc_skb(), 449, 454, 468
dev_id pointer, 254, 267
═══installing shared handlers, 275
dev_kfree_skb(), 454, 468
dev_mc_list structure, 462
/dev nodes, 6
═══assigning, 57
═══char devices and, 55
═══/dev/random device, 255
═══/dev/urandom device, 255
═══dynamic major number allocation, 58
═══removing, 61
dev structure and device initialization, 432
dev_t type (Unix), 62
dev_table.c file, 521
dev_tint(), backward compatibility issues for, 465
development kernels, 11
devfs (device filesystem), 56, 85-91
═══advantages of, 85
═══dual-mode initialization, 88
═══flags, 87
═══portability issues and, 90
DEVFS_FL_AUTO_DEVNUM flag, 87
DEVFS_FL_AUTO_OWNER flag, 87
DEVFS_FL_DEFAULT flag, 87
DEVFS_FL_HIDE flag, 87
DEVFS_FL_NO_PERSISTENCE flag, 87
DEVFS_FL_NONE flag, 87
DEVFS_FL_SHOW_UNREG flag, 87
devfs_fs_kernel.h header file, 96
devfs_get_flags(), 87
devfs_mk_dir(), 86
devfs_register(), 86
devfs_set_flags(), 87
devfs_unregister(), 86
device control operations, 5
device entry points, filesystem for, 85-91
device files, 55
═══controlling access, 164-171
═══deleting, 61
device filesystem (see devfs)
DEVICE_INTR symbol, 329, 367
device memory (see I/O memory)
DEVICE_NAME symbol, 329, 367
DEVICE_NO_RANDOM symbol, 329
DEVICE_NR symbol, 329, 367
═══minor_shift value and, 356
DEVICE_OFF macro, 329
DEVICE_ON macro, 329
DEVICE_REQUEST symbol, 329
device-dependent symbols, 328-330
deviceID PCI register, 476
devices
═══assigning virtual addresses to, 242
═══autodetecting parameters of, 43
═══base name of, 356
═══block (see block drivers)
═══caching problems, 228, 385
═══character (see char drivers)
═══classes of, 6-8
═══cloning on open requests, 169-171
═══collisions between, 36
═══creating using devfs, 86, 88
═══DMA and, 401-418
═══file operations on, 63-66
═══hardware management, 226-250
═══hot-pluggable, handling, 489-493
═══identifying type with ls command, 55
═══interrupts (see interrupt handlers)
═══names of, 56
═════ aliases for, 69
═════ dynamic major number allocation, 58
═════ removing, 61
═══network (see network drivers)
═══partitionable, 355-362
═════ accessing data within partitions, 360
═══PCI (see PCI)
═══reading and writing, 78-84
═══reading data from, 157
═══removable, 352-354
═══removing using devfs, 86
═══seeking, 163
═══single-open, 165
═══single-user access to, 167
═══truncating on open, 71
═══version (see version numbering)
═══writing control sequences to, 140
═══writing data to, 157
devices.c file, 513
digital I/O ports, 235-238
direct memory access (see DMA)
directly mapped I/O memory, 240
directories of kernel headers, 17
directory entry (file structure), 68
═══backward compatibility issues, 93
disable_dma(), 417, 424
disable_irq_nosync(), 267, 290
═══backward compatibility issues, 289
disable_irq(), 267, 290
═══backward compatibility issues, 289
═══shared handlers and, 276
disabling interrupts, 267
═══using save_flags/restore_flags, 252
disassemble command (gdb), 121
disassembled code and ksymoops, 116
disk changes, 352-354
disk files vs. open files, 67
disk geometry, retrieving, 351
dma_addr_t type, 406
DMA (direct memory access), 401-418
═══allocating buffers for, 402-404
═══backward compatibility issues, 420
═══configuring controller, 415-418
═══dedicated buffers at boot time, 221
═══__get_dma_pages() and, 215, 223
═══__GFP_DMA flag and, 209
═══for ISA memory, 413-418
═══PCI devices and, 404-412
═════ dealing with difficult hardware, 405
═══DMA mappings (see DMA mappings)
═════ hardware dependencies for, 411
═════ simple example of, 411
═══registering usage, 414
═══ring buffers, 402
DMA mappings, 405-410
═══consistent, 406
═════ setting up, 407
═══scatter-gather, 409
═══streaming, 406
═════ setting up, 407-409
dma_spin_lock, 416
DMAC (DMA controller), 413
DMA-capable memory zone, 210
═══SLAB_CACHE_DMA flag and, 212
dma.h header file, 414, 416, 423
dmesg command, 115
do_basic_setup(), 508
do_gettimeofday(), 185, 206
do_initcalls(), 508
do_ioctl method, 441, 458
do_IRQ(), 263
do_map_pgoff(), 514
do_timer(), 193
═══BH mechanism and, 272
down_interruptible(), 77, 95
down(), 77
dquot.c file, 513
driver modules, 7
drivers
═══adding new, 56-61
═══asynchronous notification and, 161
═══character (see char drivers)
═══choosing ioctl numbers for, 130
═══command-oriented, 140
═══configuring, 42-44
═══device names (see devices, names of)
═══file operations, 63-66
═══FireWire, 8
═══I2O, 8
═══input/output buffers and, 148
═══interrupt-driven, 362-364
═══mechanism of (see mechanism, driver)
═══monitoring with preprocessor, 101-103
═══network drivers, 425-469
═══probing for IRQ numbers, 261
═══removing (see unloading modules)
═══SCSI, 7
═══security issues, 9
═══USB (see USB drivers)
═══user-space, 45
═══version (see version numbering)
═══writing, using devfs, 85-91
drivers/block directory, 518
drivers/cdrom directory, 520
drivers/char directory, 518
drivers/i2c directory, 524
drivers/ide directory, 519
drivers/input directory, 523
drivers/md directory, 519
drivers/media directory, 523
drivers/mtd directory, 524
drivers/net directory, 521
driver-specific symbols, 328-330
drivers/scsi directory, 520
drivers/sound directory, 521
drivers/video directory, 522
dump analyzers, 125
Dynamic Probes debugging tool, 127

E[═Top═]
EBUSY error, 168
edge-triggered vs. level-triggered interrupt lines, 274, 495
EISA (Extended ISA) buses, 497
elevator.o file, 519
ELF sections
═══avoiding #ifdefs, 508
═══changes to kernel compilation, 509
embedded systems, different ld scripts needed for , 510
enable_dma(), 417, 424
enable_irq(), 267, 290
═══backward compatibility issues, 289
═══shared handlers and, 276
enabling interrupts, 267
═══using save_flags/restore_flags, 252
end_request(), 330, 368
═══DEVICE_NO_RANDOM symbol and, 329
═══interrupt-driven block drivers and, 362
═══splitting up multibuffer requests, 339
end_that_request_first(), 340, 368
end_that_request_last(), 340, 368
endless loops, preventing, 118
end-of-file
═══poll method and, 156
═══seeking relative to, 163
enet_statistics structure, Linux 2.0, 465
entropy pool and SA_SAMPLE_RANDOM flag, 255
errno.h header file, 31
error codes, 31
errors
═══handling in init_module(), 30-32
═══read/write, 80
═══strace command to debug, 110
/etc/hosts file, 428
/etc/modules.conf file, 307, 319
/etc/networks file, 428
/etc/syslog.conf file, 100
═══avoiding performance problems, 103
ETH_ALEN macro, 444, 468
eth_header method, 440
ETH_P_IP macro, 457, 468
eth_type_trans(), 469
═══overriding ARP, 456
ether_setup(), 432, 468
═══setting up interface information, 436-439
etherdevice.h header file, 468
Ethernet, 429
═══address resolution, 455-458
═══ARP and, 455
═══non-Ethernet headers, 457
ethernet subdirectory, 516
exclusive sleep, 146
exclusive waits, 146
exec.c file, 513
execution modes, 19
execve(), 511
__exit attribute, 35
exit system call, 512
expansion board memory, 238-247
experimental kernels, 11
expires field (timer_list structure), 201
EXPORT_NO_SYMBOLS macro, 29, 51
═══in Linux 2.0, 48
EXPORT_SYMBOL macro, 30, 50-51
EXPORT_SYMBOL_NOVERS macro, 29, 51
EXPORT_SYMTAB macro, 29, 51
exporting symbols, 29, 317
═══in Linux 2.0, 48-50
Extended ISA (EISA) buses, 497
external buses, 499-502
═══directories for, 524

F[═Top═]
f_dentry pointer, 68
═══backward compatibility issues, 93
f_flags field (file structure), 67
═══O_NONBLOCK flag, 134, 148
f_mode field (file structure), 67
f_op pointer, 68
f_pos field (file structure), 67, 91
═══read_proc/get_info() and, 105
F_SETFL command, 134, 161
═══fcntl system call and, 159
F_SETOWN command, 161
═══fcntl system call and, 159
facilities, (un)registering in init_module(), 29-32
fast interrupt handlers, 262-264
═══backward compatibility issues, 288
fasync_helper(), 162, 179
fasync method, 65
═══asynchronous notification and, 161
═══backward compatibility issues, 173
fasync_struct structure, 161
faults (see system faults)
faulty_write()
═══klogd and, 113
═══ksymoops and, 115
fb_info structure, 522
fbmem.c file, 522
fc_setup(), 437
fcntl system call
═══F_SETOWN/F_SETFL commands, 159
═══vs. ioctl method, 134
fcntl.h header file, 148
fdatasync system call, 158
FDDI networks, configuring interfaces, 437
fddi_setup(), 437
fdisk program, 355-362
fiber channel devices, initializing, 437
FIFO (first-in-first-out) devices, 55
═══poll method and, 156
fifo.c file, 513
file flags, 67
file handling and fs directory , 513
file modes, 67
file_operations structure, 57, 63-66, 68
═══backward compatibility issues, 91-93
═══declaring using tagged initialization, 66
═══mmap method and, 384
file structure, 63, 66
File System header (fs.h), 95
file.c file, 513
filemap.c file, 514
filesystem modules, 8
filesystem nodes, 4
═══block drivers accessed by, 7
═══names, device (see devices, names of)
filp pointer, 67
═══in ioctl method, 129
═══mounting block drivers, 348
═══in read/write methods, 78
═══retrieving inode pointers from, 93
filp->f_op, 68
═══implementing multiple fops, 70
═══initializing, 89
filp->private_data
═══initializing, 89
FIOASYNC command, 134
FIOCLEX command, 134
FIONBIO command, 134
FIONCLEX command, 134
FireWire drivers, 8
firmware, PCI-aware, 474
first-in-first-out (FIFO) devices, 55
═══poll method and, 156
flags
═══devfs, 87
═══file, 67
flash memory, executing kernel from, 510
flush method, 65
═══backward compatibility issues, 93
═══close system call and, 73
flushing pending output, 158
font, incorrect on console, 140
fops pointers, 63
═══as argument to register_chrdev, 56
═══implementing multiple, 70
fops->open, 70
forcing module load, 24
fork system call, 512
fragmentation, 403
frame buffer video devices directory, 522
free command, 85
free_dma(), 414, 423
free_irq(), 253, 289
═══when to call, 255
free_kiovec(), 396, 422
free_pages(), 215, 225
free_page(), 215, 225
fs directory, 513
fs.h header file, 95, 177, 322, 366
═══asynchronous notification and, 161
═══block driver commands and, 349
═══blocking/nonblocking operations, 148
═══file structure and, 66
═══kdev_t type and, 62
═══register_chrdev(), 56
fsync_dev method, 328
═══flushing all partitions, 359
fsync method, 65, 158
═══backward compatibility issue, 173
functions
═══accessing memory in Linux 2.0, 173-175
═══calling from modules/applications, 17
═══disassembling with gdb, 121
═══inserting schedule() calls in, 118

G[═Top═]
gcc compiler
═══-g option, 121
═══inline assembly code, 184
═══-O flag, 22
═══SPARC platforms and, 27
═══-Wall flag, 23
gdb debugger, 120-122
═══kgdb patch and, 125
gendisk_head, 358, 369
gendisk_struct structure, 356, 369
═══adding to global list, 358
═══removing from global list, 360
General Public License (GPL), 12
generic hard disk support, 356
genhd.c file, 518
genhd.h header file, 356, 369
__GENKSYMS__, 320
genksyms program, 317
geographical addressing, 473
═══lack of in ISA devices, 494
═══MCA buses and, 497
═══NuBus and, 499
═══Plug and Play, 496
═══SBus and, 498
geometry, disk, 351
get_cycles(), 183
__get_dma_pages(), 215, 225
get_dma_residue(), 417, 424
get_fast_time(), 185, 206
__get_free_page(), 215, 225
═══advantage of using, 217
__get_free_pages(), 215, 225
get_free_pages(), 208
═══allocating memory using, 298
═══limitations on memory allocation, 403
═══mmap method and, 392
═══returning virtual addresses, 217
get_info(), 104-107
get_kernel_syms system call, 24
get_page(), 387
═══backward compatibility issues, 419
get_stats method, 441, 459
get_unaligned(), 299, 304
__get_user(), 136, 178
get_user(), 136, 178
═══Linux 2.0 version, 174
get_zeroed_page(), 215, 225
getdents system call, 513
GFP_ATOMIC flag, 209, 224
═══page-oriented allocation functions, 215
═══preparing for allocation failure, 215
GFP_BUFFER flag, 209
__GFP_DMA flag, 209, 224
═══memory zones and, 210
═══page-oriented allocation functions, 215
__GFP_HIGHMEM flag, 210, 224
═══memory zones and, 210
═══page-oriented allocation functions, 215
GFP_HIGHUSER flag, 209
GFP_KERNEL flag, 36, 208, 224
═══page-oriented allocation functions, 215
GFP_USER flag, 36, 209
GKSMP symbol, 317
global
═══memory areas, 55
═══message enabling/disabling, 101
goto statement, 30
GPL (General Public License), 12
gpm mouse server, 45, 119
group, device, 59

H[═Top═]
handle_IRQ_event(), 263
handle_scancode(), 518
hard_header method, 440, 457
═══backward compatibility issues, 466
═══building packets with ARP query results, 455
hard_header_parse method, 442
hard_start_transmit method, 445
hard_start_xmit method, 440, 445
═══backward compatibility issues, 464
HARDRESET command, 132
hardsect_size global array, 324, 367
hardware (see devices)
hardware abstractions (PCI), 493
hardware addresses, 437
═══assigning, 444
═══changing, using set_mac_address method, 441
═══multicasting and, 460-464
═══used with PCI peripherals, 471-474
hardware headers
═══adding before transmitting packets, 454
═══backward compatibility issues, 466
═══building, 440
═══encapsulating information, 457
═══overriding ARP, 456
hardware memory barriers, 228, 249
═══backward compatibility issues, 248
HAVE_DEVLIST, backward compatibility issues for, 466
HDIO_GETGEO command, 351
hdreg.h header file, 351
head pointers and circular buffers, 280
header_cache method, 442
header_cache_update method, 442
header files, 17
═══include directory and, 517
═══managing symbol visibility, 29
═══removing conditional compilation, 90
headers, Ethernet (see Ethernet)
headers, non-Ethernet, 457
helper programs, running, 311
hex values of oops messages, 114
hiding global symbols, 29
═══in Linux 2.0, 48
high memory, 372
═══request queues and, 348
high memory zone, 210
high RAM addresses, reserving, 223
highmem.c file, 515
highmem.h header file, 374
HIPPI drivers, preparing fields for, 437
hippi_setup(), 437
host adapters, plugging into core system, 520
host numbers, 428
hosts.c file, 520
hot-pluggable devices, handling, 489-493
hung system, 118
HZ (time frequency) symbol, 181, 297

I[═Top═]
i_rdev field (inode structure), 61
I2O drivers, 8
IA-64 architecture
═══PCI DMA interface support, 411
═══porting and, 233
═══/proc/interrupts file, snapshot of, 257
IDE device drivers, directory for, 519
if_ether.h header file, 468
ifconfig command
═══net_device structure and, 435
═══opening/closing interfaces, 443
#ifdef constructs
═══avoiding with devfs, 90
═══avoiding with init calls, 508
IFF_ symbols, 438, 462
IFF_NOARP flag, 432
if.h header file, 438, 458, 467
ifreq structure, 458
IKD (integrated kernel debugger) patch, 124
IMMEDIATE_BH bottom half, 272
═══writing a BH bottom half, 273
immediate queue, 193, 197, 206
═══BH mechanism and, 272
═══writing a BH bottom half, 273
in_interrupt(), 192, 206
═══vs. intr_count global variable, 205
inb_p(), 232, 249
inb(), 230, 249
include/asm directory (see entries under <asm/>)
include directory, 517
infinite loops, preventing, 118
inflate.c file, 517
__init attribute, 35
init calls and #ifdef constructs, 508
INIT_LIST_HEAD macro, 301
init_module(), 16, 29-32, 50
═══error handling in, 30-32
═══EXPORT_NO_SYMBOLS macro and, 29
═══hiding global symbols, 48
═══unregistering facilities from, 30
═══using unique names instead of, 34
init process, 511
INIT_REQUEST(), 330, 368
═══splitting up multibuffer requests, 339
init scripts and loading/unloading modules, 60
init thread, 507
init_timer(), 201, 207
__initdata attribute, 35
init.h header file, 35, 50
initialization functions and boot-time memory allocation, 221
initializing
═══kernel data structures, 507
═══modules, 29-32
═════ explicitly naming functions for, 34
═══network devices, 432
═══semaphores, 76
initrd utility, 360
inline assembly code (example), 183
inline functions, 22
═══for accessing I/O ports, 230
inl(), 231, 249
inode pointer
═══backward compatibility issues, 91
═══in ioctl method, 129
═══retrieving from filp pointer, 93
inode structure
═══accessing device numbers, 61, 69, 95
═══mounting block drivers, 348
inode->i_rdev, 61, 69, 95
inode.c file, 513
input buffers, driver, 148
input files, enabling asynchronous notification from, 159
input management, directory for, 523
input module, 28
input pins, 226, 235
═══reading values from parallel port, 238
input_register_device(), 523
input_register_handler(), 523
input.c file, 523
input.h header file, 504
insb(), 232, 249
insl(), 232, 249
insmod program, 6, 24
═══assigning parameter values, 42
═══backward compatibility issues, 319
═══dynamically allocating major numbers, 60
═══-f switch, 24
═══modprobe program vs., 28
═══module loading and security, 309
═══testing modules using, 16
═══version control in modules, 314
═══vmalloc() and, 218
installing interrupt handlers, 253-264
insw(), 232, 249
int data type, 294
integrated kernel debugger (IKD) patch, 124
inter_module_get_request(), 313, 319
inter_module_get(), 312, 319
inter_module_put(), 313, 319
inter_module_register(), 312, 319
inter_module_unregister(), 312, 319
interactive kernel debugger (kdb), 122-124
interface buses, 496-502
interface flags for net_device structure, 438
interface-specific data types, 296
intermodule communication, 311-314
Internet sites about Linux kernels, xv
interrupt handlers, 251-292
═══using arguments with, 267
═══autodetecting IRQ numbers, 258-262, 276
═══backward compatibility issues, 288
═══BH mechanism, 271
═══bottom halves of handlers, 269-274
═══enabling/disabling interrupts, 252, 267
═══fast vs.slow, 262-264
═════ backward compatibility issues, 288
═══implementing, 264-268
═══installing, 253-264
═════ at device open, 255
═════ shared handlers, 275
═══for network drivers, 450
═══preparing parallel ports for, 253
═══/proc files for, 256
═══race conditions, 278-288
═════ circular buffers for, 279
═════ lock variables for, 284-286
═════ spinlocks for, 281-283
═══running shared handlers, 276
═══sharing interrupts, 274-278
═══tasklets, 270
═══on x86 architecture, 263
interrupt mode and asynchronous execution, 191
interrupt numbers, 254
═══used as arguments, 267
═══probing using kernel facility, 259
interrupt request lines (see IRQs)
Interrupt Service Routine (ISR), 181
interrupt-driven operation, 278
═══block drivers, 362-364
interrupt.h header file, 199, 206, 259, 272, 290
interruptible_sleep_on_timeout(), 142, 178
═══delaying code execution, 187
interruptible_sleep_on(), 142, 178
═══avoiding race conditions, 286
═══implementation of, 144
═══vs. wait_event macro, 145
interruptions, code, 77
interrupts
═══PCI, 488
═══timer, 181
interrupts file, 256, 289
═══shared interrupts and, 277
intervals of time, 181-184, 297
intptr_t type (C99 standard), 294
intr_count global variable, 205
inw(), 230, 249
_IO() macro, 131, 177
I/O, 158
═══accessing, PCI and, 483-488
═══asynchronous notification, 159-162
═══blocking, 141-153
═══blocking/nonblocking, 148
═══buffers for, 148
═══flushing pending, 158
═══interrupt-driven, 278
═══ISA devices and, 494
═══pausing, 232
═══remapping specific regions of, 389
═══space for, in PCI buses, 473
═══string operations, 231
═══transferring data with DMA, 401-418
═══(see also reading; writing)
I/O memory, 39-41, 226, 238-247
═══directly mapped, 240
═══page tables and, 239
═══software-mapped, 242
I/O ports, 36-41, 226, 229-234
═══allocating, 39
═══digital, 235-238
═══inline functions for accessing, 230
═══parallel (see parallel ports)
I/O registers vs. RAM, 227-229
I/O registry, accessing, 38
io_request_lock, 338, 368
═══backward compatibility issues, 366
═══multiqueue block drivers and, 343
═══performing clustered I/O, 341
I/O request queues (see request queues)
iobuf.h header file, 396, 422
_IOC() macro, 177
_IOC_TYPEBITS macro, 131, 177
_IOC_NR() macro, 131, 177
_IOC_READ macro, 131, 177
_IOC_NONE macro, 131, 177
_IOC_DIRBITS macro, 177
_IOC_TYPE() macro, 131, 177
_IOC_NRBITS macro, 131, 177
_IOC_SIZEBITS macro, 131, 177
_IOC_WRITE macro, 131, 177
_IOC_SIZE() macro, 131, 177
_IOC_DIR() macro, 131, 177
ioctl method, 64, 129-141
═══accessing specific information for partitions, 361
═══using bitfields to define commands, 130
═══block devices and, 349-352
═══changing read_ahead values, 326
═══command numbers, choosing, 130-133
═══controlling devices without, 140
═══controlling I/O channel, 128
═══customizing for networking, 458
═══debugging with, 108
═══extra argument of, 134-139
═══implementing ioctl commands, 138
═══network devices and, 441
═══predefined commands of, 133
═══using scalar values to define commands, 133
═══TIOCLINUX command, 99
═══type checking disabled, 129
ioctl.c file, 513
ioctl.h header file, 130, 177
═══setting up command numbers, 131
ioctl-number.txt file, 130
io.h header file (asm), 249, 422
═══accessing I/O ports, 230
═══converting between bus/virtual addresses, 404
io.h header file (linux), 250
iomem file, 39, 53
iomem_resource structure, 41
ioperm(), 231
iopl(), 231
ioport_resource structure, 41
ioport.h header file, 38, 52, 229, 250
═══resource ranges and, 40
ioports file, 37, 53
_IOR() macro, 131, 177
_IOW() macro, 131, 177
_IOWR() macro, 131, 177
ioremap_nocache(), 242, 250
ioremap(), 217-219, 225, 250
═══accessing I/O memory, 239
═══backward compatibility issues, 248
═══ISA memory range, 243
═══software-mapped I/O memory and, 242
IORESOURCE_IO flag, 484
IORESOURCE_MEM flag, 484
IORESOURCE_PREFETCH flag, 484
IORESOURCE_READONLY flag, 484
iounmap(), 217, 225, 250
═══backward compatibility issues, 248
═══software-mapped I/O memory and, 242
iovec structures, 84
IP numbers
═══assigning, 427-429
═══resolving to physical addresses, 455-458
ip_summed field (sk_buff), 449, 453
ipc directory, 517
ipv4/ipv6 subdirectories, 516
irq argument (interrupt number), 254, 267
IRQ_WAITING status bit, setting, 264
irq.h header file, 262, 267
IRQs (interrupt request lines), 253
═══autodetecting (probing) numbers for, 258-262
═════ shared interrupts and, 276
═══level-triggered vs. edge-triggered, 274, 495
═══PCI devices and, 488
═══statistics on, 257
ISA bus master DMA, 413
ISA devices, 494-496
═══DMA for, 413-418
═══EISA (Extended ISA) buses, 497
═══identifying I/O regions, 36
═══interrupt sharing and, 274, 495
═══pausing I/O, 232
═══Plug-and-Play specification, 496
═══probing, 38
═══programming techniques, 495
═══VLB (VESA Local Bus) devices, 498
ISA memory
═══accessing, 244
═══below 1 MB, 243-245
═══DMA for, 413-418
═══nopage method and, 389
═══probing for, 245-247
isa_readb and related functions, 245
ISDN drivers and lookaside caches, 211-214
ISR (Interrupt Service Routine), 181

J[═Top═]
jiffies value
═══in busy waiting implementation, 186
═══kernel timers and, 201
═══no solution for short delays, 188
═══retrieving current time, 184
═══at timer interrupt, 182
═══trans_start field and, 442
═══variable syntax, 205
jiq (Just In Queue) module, 193
═══timer usage example, 202
jiq_print_tq(), 193
jit (Just In Time) module
═══current time, retrieving, 185
═══delaying code execution, 186
jitbusy program, 186
Just In Queue (jiq) module, 193
═══timer usage example, 202
Just In Time (jit) module
═══current time, retrieving, 185
═══delaying code execution, 186

K[═Top═]
kbd_mode -a command, 119
kcore file, 120
kdataalign program, 300
kdatasize module, 294
kdb kernel debugger, 122-124
kdev_t_no_nr(), 62
kdev_t type, 62
═══extracting physical device number, 329
kdev_t.h header file, 62
keep directive (modprobe), 308
KERN_ALERT macro, 98
KERN_CRIT macro, 98
KERN_DEBUG macro, 98
KERN_EMERG macro, 98
KERN_ERR macro, 98
KERN_INFO macro, 98
KERN_NOTICE macro, 98
KERN_WARNING macro, 98
kernel directory, 512
kernel headers, 17
kernel I/O buffers, 396-400
kernel I/O vectors, 396
kernel lockups, detecting, 124
kernel logical addresses (see logical addresses)
kernel sources, 527
kernel space, 19
═══transferring to/from user space, 78-84
kernel stack debugger (IKD feature), 124
__KERNEL__ symbol, 22, 50
═══explicitly sizing data, 295
═══kernel header files and, 17
__KERNEL_SYSCALLS__, 511
kernel timers, 200-203
KERNEL_VERSION macro, 25, 47
kernel_version variable, 52
kernel virtual addresses (see virtual addresses)
kerneld program, backward compatibility issues for, 318
kerneld.h header file, backward compatibility issues for, 319
KERNELDIR variable and version dependency, 25
kernel.h header file, 98, 228, 249
kernels
═══allocating memory at boot time, 221-223
═══books about Linux, 527
═══booting, 507-509
═════ with initrd, 360
═══capabilities and restricted operations, 137
═══concurrency in, 20
═══connecting network drivers to, 430-434
═══current process and, 21
═══developmental (experimental), 11
═══filesystem modules, 8
═══flash memory, executing from, 510
═══handling system faults (see system faults)
═══IKD (integrated kernel debugger) patch, 124
═══initial boot sequence, 507
═══introduction to, 1-14
═══kgdb patch and, 125
═══kiobufs, 396-400
═══kmod facility and, 305
═══linked lists, 300-302
═══loading modules into (see loading modules)
═══messages (see messages)
═══module version control, 314-318
═══multicasting support, 461
═══probing interrupt numbers with, 259
═══race conditions and, 76-78
═══request queues, finding, 343
═══running task queues, 191
═══security (see security)
═══splitting role of, 4-6
═══symbol table, 27-29
═════ klogd and, 114
═══system hangs, 118
═══time intervals in, 181-184
═══tracing programs, 108-110
═══using conventional data types, 295
═══version numbering, 10
═══web sites about, xv
keventd process, 192, 195
═══backward compatibility issues, 204
═══call_usermodehelper and, 311
keyboard, debugging when locked, 118
keyboard.c file, 518
kfree_skb(), 454, 468
kfree(), 36, 52, 224
═══defined in slab.c file, 514
═══scull driver example and, 73
kgcc package, 22
kgdb patch, 125
khttpd subdirectory, 516
kill_fasync(), 162, 179
kiobuf_init(), 396, 422
kiobufs, 396-400
kiovecs, 396
klogd daemon
═══-c flag, 98
═══debugging modules with, 113
═══decoding oops messages, 113
═══-f option, 101
═══logging messages, 100
═══obtaining clean oops messages, 115
═══-p option, 114
kmalloc.c file, 211, 514
kmalloc(), 36, 52, 208-211, 224
═══defined in slab.c file, 514
═══flags argument, 208-210
═══limitations on memory allocation, 403
═══performance degradation issues, 216
═══returning virtual addresses, 217-219
═══scull driver example and, 73
═══size argument, 211
═══vs. vmalloc(), 217-219
kmap(), 374, 421
═══backward compatibility issues, 420
kmem_cache_alloc, 213, 225
kmem_cache_create, 212, 224
kmem_cache_destroy, 213, 224
kmem_cache_free, 213, 225
kmem_cache_t, 212, 224
kmod facility, 305
═══loading modules, 310
═══user-mode helper programs and, 311
kmod.c file, 512
kmod.h header file, 306, 319
═══backward compatibility issues, 319
kmsg file, 100
kswapd thread, 515
ksymoops utility, 114-118
═══obtaining clean oops messages, 115
ksyms command, 27
ksyms file, 27, 30, 53
═══ksymoops and, 115
kunmap(), 374, 421
═══backward compatibility issues, 420

L[═Top═]
layered modularization, 28
LCRASH utility, 126
ld scripts and boot code layout, 510
ld -r command, 23
__le32_to_cpu macro, 298, 304
least significant bit and partitionable devices, 355
LEDs, soldering to output pins, 237
levels
═══debugging, 102
═══message priority (see loglevels)
levels (modalities), CPU, 19
level-triggered vs. edge-triggered interrupt lines, 274, 495
lib directory, 517
libraries, 17
license, Linux, 12
line disciplines, implementing, 521
link state, changes in, 451
linked lists, 300-302
Linux
═══license terms, 12
═══version numbering, 10
linux directory, 17
Linux Documentation Project web site, xv
Linux Kernel Crash Dumps (LKCD), 126
Linux Trace Toolkit (LTT), 127
LINUX_VERSION_CODE macro, 25, 52
<linux/autoconf.h> header file, 316
<linux/blk.h> header file (see blk.h header file)
<linux/blkdev.h> header file, 323, 366
<linux/blkpg.h> header file, 351
<linux/bootmem.h> header file, 221, 225
<linux/capability.h> header file, 137, 178
<linux/config.h> header file, 316, 320, 477, 503
<linux/delay.h> header file, 188, 206
<linux/devfs_fs_kernel.h> header file, 87, 96
<linux/errno.h> header file, 31
<linux/etherdevice.h> header file, 468
<linux/fcntl.h> header file, 148
<linux/fs.h> header file, 95, 177, 322, 366
═══asynchronous notification and, 161
═══block driver commands and, 349
═══blocking/nonblocking operations, 148
═══file structure and, 66
═══kdev_t type and, 62
═══register_chrdev(), 56
<linux/genhd.h> header file, 356, 369
<linux/hdreg.h> header file, 351
<linux/highmem.h> header file, 374
<linux/if_ether.h> header file, 468
<linux/if.h> header file, 438, 458, 467
<linux/init.h> header file, 35, 50
<linux/input.h> header file, 504
<linux/interrupt.h> header file, 199, 206, 259, 272, 290
<linux/io.h> header file, 250
<linux/iobuf.h.h> header file, 396, 422
<linux/ioctl.h> header file, 177
═══setting up command numbers, 131
<linux/ioport.h> header file, 38, 52, 229, 250
═══resource ranges and, 40
<linux/kdev_t.h> header file, 62
linux-kernel mailing list, 13
<linux/kernel.h> header file, 98, 228, 249
<linux/kerneld.h> header file
═══backward compatibility issues, 319
<linux/kmod.h> header file, 306, 319
═══backward compatibility issues, 319
<linux/list.h> header file, 144, 300-302, 304
<linux/malloc.h> header file, 224
<linux/mm.h> header file, 209, 224, 380, 421
<linux/module.h> header file, 24, 51, 66
═══version.h header file and, 25
<linux/modversions.h> header, 315, 320
<linux/netdevice.h> header file, 431, 467
<linux/param.h> header file, 181, 205
<linux/pci.h> header file, 405, 422, 477, 503
═══accessing configuration space, 480
═══detecting size of PCI regions, 486
═══pci_ops structure and, 493
<linux/poll.h> header file, 154, 179
<linux/proc_fs.h> header file, 104
<linux/scatterlist.h> header file, 410
<linux/sched.h> header file, 52, 178, 205, 289, 291
═══interrupt request line functions, 253
═══jiffies value and, 182
═══kernel directory and, 512
═══wait queue code information, 147
<linux/skbuff.h> header file, 445, 452, 468
<linux/sockios.h> header file, 458, 469
<linux/spinlock.h> header file, 166, 180, 281, 290
<linux/symtab_begin.h> header file, 51
<linux/symtab_end.h> header file, 51
<linux/time.h> header file, 206
<linux/timer.h> header file, 201, 207
<linux/tqueue.h> header file, 190, 192, 206
<linux/types.h> header file, 295, 303
<linux/uio.h> header file, 84
<linux/usb.h> header file, 504
<linux/version.h> header file, 25, 52
<linux/vmalloc.h> header file, 217, 225
<linux/wait.h> header file, 144, 178
list_add(), 301, 304
list_add_tail(), 301, 304
list_del(), 301, 304
list_empty(), 301, 304
═══testing request queues with, 344
list_entry(), 301, 304
list_head data structure, 300-302
list_splice(), 301, 304
list.h header file, 144, 300-302, 304
lists, linked, 300-302
__LITTLE_ENDIAN symbol, 298, 304
little-endian byte order, 298, 475, 480
LKCD (Linux Kernel Crash Dumps), 126
ll_rw_blk.c file, 518
llseek method, 64, 92, 163
═══in Linux version 2.0, 176
loading block drivers, 321-354
loading modules, 24
═══on demand, 305-311
═════ slave/master modules example, 309
═══dynamically assigned device numbers, 59
═══for network drivers, 430
═══version dependency and, 24
LocalTalk devices, setting up fields for, 437
lock_kiovec(), 396, 422
lock method, 65
lock variables, 284-286
locked keyboard, debugging, 118
lockup detector (IKD), 124
loff_t (long offset), 64, 67, 91
LOG_BUF_LEN circular buffer, 100
logging messages, 100
logical addresses, 372
loglevels (message priorities), 15, 97-99
long data type, 294
long delays, 186-188
lookaside caches, 211-214
═══backward compatibility issues, 223
loopback interface, 426
═══IFF_LOOPBACK flag, 438
loop.c file, 519
loops
═══busy, 186
═══endless, 118
═══software, 188
loops_per_second value, 188
low memory, 372
lp.c file, 518
ls command, identifying device type, 55
lseek method, 64
═══in Linux version 2.0, 176
═══syntax in Linux 2.0, 92
ltalk_setup(), 437
LTT (Linux Trace Toolkit), 127
LVM (logical volume manager) drivers
═══drivers/md directory, 519
═══"make request" function and, 346

M[═Top═]
M68k architecture
═══layout of boot code, 510
═══no support for PCI bus, 411
═══porting and, 233
MAC (Medium Access Control) addresses, 437
═══resolving, 455-458
═══set_mac_address method and, 441
machine-specific registers, 183
magic SysRq key, 119
mailing list, linux-kernel, 13
major device numbers, 56-61
═══dynamic allocation of, 57-61
MAJOR macro, 62, 95
major_name value (gendisk_struct), 356
MAJOR_NR symbol, 328, 367
"make request" function, 346-348
__make_request(), 346
make utility
═══building a makefile, 23
═══KERNELDIR variable and, 25
makefiles, 22
═══adding version control with, 315
═══exporting versioned symbols, 317
═══install rules for, 26
═══SPARC architecture and, 27
malloc.h header file, 224
mangling symbol names, 314-317
map_user_kiobuf(), 399, 422
maplist array (kiobuf), 396, 400
mapper program, 391
mapping memory (see memory management)
mapping registers, 405
═══architectures not supporting, 411
═══scatterlists and, 409
mark_bh(), 272, 290
marking bottom halves, 272
max_readahead global array, 325, 367
═══backward compatibility issues, 365
max_sectors global array, 326, 367
max_segments global array, 326
mb(), 228, 249
MCA (Micro Channel Architecture) buses, 497
mdelay(), 188, 206
mechanism, driver
═══defining, 54
═══policy versus, 2
media, directory for, 523
Medium Access Control addresses (see MAC addresses)
mem.c file, 518
memcpy_fromfs(), 94, 96
memcpy_fromio(), 241, 250
memcpy_tofs(), 94, 96
memcpy_toio(), 241, 250
memory
═══accessing
═════ from expansion boards, 238-247
═════ in Linux 2.0, 173-175
═════ in PCI buses, 473, 483-488
═══allocating, 73-75
═════ at boot time, 221-223
═════ with kmalloc, 208-211
═════ by page, 214-217
═════ performance degradation issues, 216
═════ with vmalloc, 217-220
═══circular buffers, 279
═══free, information on, 85
═══global areas, 55
═══high, 372
═══how much to allocate, 211
═══ISA memory range, 243-245
═══limitations on, 372
═══lookaside caches, 211-214
═══low, 372
═══managing allocation, 36
═══page size and portability, 297
═══persistence, 55
═══verifying user-space addresses, 135
═══vs. I/O registers, 227-229
memory barriers, 228
═══backward compatibility issues, 248
═══performance issues, 229
memory management, 4
═══accessing pages not in memory, 387-389
═══backward compatibility issues, 418-420
═══DMA (direct memory access), 401-418
═══fragmentation, 403
═══handling map region changes, 387-389
═══kernel source file directory, 514
═══memory mapping/remapping, 373-375
═════ accessing pages not in memory, 387-389
═════ handling region changes, 387-389
═════ kiobufs, 396-400
═════ mmap method, 382-395
═════ PCI regions, 485
═════ RAM, 390-394
═════ specific I/O regions, 389
═════ virtual addresses, 394
═══mmap method, 382-395
═══PCI and, 483-488
═══theory of, 370-382
═══VMAs (virtual memory areas), 378-382
memory map arrays, 374
memory maps, components of, 379
memory zones, 210
memory.c file, 515
memory-is-prefetchable bit, 483
memory-mapped registers (see I/O memory)
memset_io(), 241, 250
messages
═══globally enabling/disabling, 101
═══logging, 100
═══oops messages, 111-118
═══priorities (loglevels) of, 15, 97-99
mice, 119
═══asynchronous notification, 161
Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) buses, 497
minor device numbers, 56, 61, 69
MINOR macro, 62, 95
minor_shift value (gendisk_struct), 356
MIPS processor
═══directly mapped memory, 240
═══inline assembly code and, 183
═══layout of boot code, 510
═══PCI DMA interface support, 411
═══porting and, 233
MIPS64 architecture, support for PCI DMA interface, 411
misc directory, 525
═══installing drivers in, 26
misc-modules/export.c file, 49
MKDEV macro, 62, 95
mknod command, 57
mlock system call, 46
mlock.c file, 514
mm directory, 514
mmap_avl.c file, 515
mmap method, 65, 382-395
═══using remap_page_range, 384-386
═══remapping virtual addresses with, 394
═══scullp driver and, 391-394
═══usage count and, 386
═══vm_area_struct structure and, 380
mmap.c file, 514
mm.h header file, 209, 224, 380, 421
mm/kmalloc.c file, 211, 514
mm/slab.c file, 211, 514
MOD_DEC_USE_COUNT macro, 33, 51
MOD_IN_USE macro, 33, 51
MOD_INC_USE_COUNT macro, 33, 51
mod_timer(), 202, 207
═══avoiding race conditions, 203
modalities (levels), CPU, 19
modes
═══device modes, 59
═══file modes, 67
modprobe program, 319
═══assigning parameter values, 42
═══directives, 308
═══insmod program vs., 28
═══loading modules, 307
═══request_module() and, 306
═══security issues for module names, 309
═══version control in modules, 314
modularization
═══kmod facility, 305
═══layered, 28
═══network drivers, 434
MODULE_AUTHOR macro, 44, 51
MODULE_DESCRIPTION macro, 44, 51
module_exit(), 35, 50
module_init(), 35, 50
__module_kernel_version symbol, 24
module parameters, 43
═══backward compatibility issues, 50
MODULE_PARM_DESC macro, 43, 51
MODULE_PARM macro, 42, 51
═══backward compatibility issues, 50
MODULE_SUPPORTED_DEVICE macro, 44, 51
MODULE symbol, 22
module.c file, 512
module.h header file, 24, 51, 66
═══version.h header file and, 25
modules, 6
═══applications vs., 16-21
═══classes of, 6-8
═══communicating between, 311-314
═══current process and, 21
═══debugging, 113-118
═══exporting symbols, 29, 317
═════ in Linux 2.0, 48-50
═══filesystem, 8
═══header files of, 17
═══initializing, 29-32
═════ explicitly naming functions for, 34
═══interrupts (see interrupt handlers)
═══license terms, 12
═══loading/unloading, 16, 61, 305-311
═════ with dynamically assigned device numbers, 59
═════ insmod program and, 24
═════ for network drivers, 430, 434
═════ slave/master modules example, 309
═════ usage count and, 33, 313
═════ using init scripts, 60
═════ version dependency and, 24
══════(see also cleanup_module())
═══partition detection in, 357-360
═══platform dependency, 27
═══probing for hardware (see probing)
═══requesting the loading of, 306
═══security (see security)
═══stacking, 28
═══usage count, 33, 313
═════ backward compatibility issues, 93
═══version control, 314-318
═══version dependency, 24-26
modules file, 34, 51
═══ksymoops and, 114
modutils package
═══exporting symbols, 29
═══misc directory and, 26
MODVERSIONS, 320
modversions.h header file, 315, 320
monitoring, preprocessor for, 101-103
most significant bit, 253
═══partitionable devices and, 355
mounting block drivers, 348
mremap system call, 387
═══remapping specific I/O regions, 390
msr.h header file, 183, 205
MTU, network devices and, 441
multicasting, 460-464
═══IFF_MULTICAST flag and, 439
multiprocessor systems
═══backward compatibility issues, 48
multiqueue block drivers, 342-345
mutex semaphores, 76
mutual exclusion mode (semaphores), 76

N[═Top═]
n_tty.c file, 518
namei.c file, 513
names, device (see devices, names of)
namespace pollution, 18
native DMA, 413-418
natural alignment of data items, 300
nbd.c file, 519
nbtest program, 153
net_device_stats structure, 433
═══backward compatibility issues, 465
═══fields in, 459
net_device structure, 430, 435-443
═══device methods of, 440-442
═══ether_setup and, 432, 436-439
═══hidden fields, 436-443
═══interface flags for, 438
═══interface information, 436-439
═══unusual devices, assigning fields for, 437
═══utility fields for, 442
═══visible fields, 435
net directory, 516
net_init.c file, 436
netdevice.h header file, 431, 467
netif_carrier_off(), 451, 467
═══backward compatibility issues, 465
netif_carrier_ok(), 452, 467
netif_carrier_on(), 451, 467
═══backward compatibility issues, 465
netif_rx(), 467
═══packet reception and, 450
netif_start_queue(), 444, 467
═══backward compatibility issues, 464
netif_stop_queue(), 444, 467
═══backward compatibility issues, 464
═══controlling transmission concurrency, 446
netif_wake_queue(), 467
═══backward compatibility issues, 464
═══restarting packet transmission, 446
netsyms.c file, 516
network drivers, 7, 425-469
═══connecting to kernel, 430-434
═══initializing devices, 432, 521
═══interrupt handlers for, 450
═══link state, changes in, 451
═══loading/unloading modules for, 430, 434
═══methods of, 440-442
═══modularized vs. non-modularized, 434
═══opening/closing network interface, 443-445
═══socket buffers (see socket buffers)
═══statistics on, 459
networking, 6
═══backward compatibility issues, 464-466
__NO_VERSION__ symbol, 26, 52
nonblocking operations, 148
═══poll method, 154-159
═══select method, 154-159
═══testing, 153
non-modularized network drivers, 434
nonpreemption and concurrency, 20
nopage method, 382
═══backward compatibility issues, 419
═══mapping memory with, 387-389
═══mapping RAM to user space, 391-394
═══mremap system call with, 387
═══preventing extension of mapping, 390
═══remapping virtual addresses with, 394
normal memory zone, 210
NR_IRQS symbol, 262
NuBus, 499
NULL pointers, invalid dereferencing, 111-113
NUM macro, splitting minor numbers, 69
numbering versions (see version numbering)

O[═Top═]
O_NDELAY flag (f_flags field), 148
O_NONBLOCK flag (f_flags field), 67, 134, 148
═══read/write methods and, 157
O_RDONLY flag (f_flags field), 67
O_SYNC flag (f_flags field), 67
objdump utility, 118
═══disassembling module functions, 122
octets vs. bytes, 426
oops messages, 61, 111-118
═══decoding, 113-118
═══resolving hex values of, 114
open method, 65, 68-72
═══accessing data within partitions, 360
═══adding VMA operations, 386
═══blocking, 168
═══checking for disk changes, 354
═══cloning devices in response to, 169-171
═══initializing file pointers, 89
═══mounting block drivers, 348
═══for network devices, 440, 443
═══private_data and, 68
═══requesting DMA channels, 414
═══restricting simultaneous users and, 167
═══for single-open devices, 165
═══vm_operations_struct structure, 381
open.c file, 513
opening network interface, 443-445
optimizations, compiler, 227
options directive (modprobe), 308
outb_p(), 232
outb(), 230, 249
outl(), 231, 249
output buffers, driver, 148
output pins, 226, 235
═══soldering LEDs to, 237
outsb(), 232, 249
outsl(), 232, 249
outsw(), 232, 249
outw(), 230, 249
overriding ARP, 456

P[═Top═]
__pa(), 372, 421
═══backward compatibility issues, 420
packages, upgrading, 10
PACKET_BROADCAST flag, 453
PACKET_HOST flag, 453
PACKET_MULTICAST flag, 453
PACKET_OTHERHOST flag, 453
packets
═══multicasting, 460-464
═══transmission/reception of, 429, 445-450
page_address(), 374, 421
page_alloc.c file, 514
Page Directory (PGD) page table, 375
page faults caused by invalid pointers, 111
Page Mid-level Directory (PMD) page table, 375
PAGE_SHIFT symbol, 297, 303
page size and portability, 297
PAGE_SIZE symbol, 297, 303
═══mmap method and, 383
page_table_lock, 378
═══backward compatibility issues, 419
═══remapping virtual addresses, 395
page tables, 375-378
═══building
═════ using nopage, 387-389
═════ using remap_page_range, 384
═══I/O memory and, 239
═══remapping virtual addresses, 394
page.h header file, 297, 303, 372, 376
page-oriented allocation functions, 214-217
panic.c file, 512
Parallel Line Internet Protocol (PLIP)
═══using Ethernet headers, 456
═══interrupt handling differences, 450
═══overriding ARP, 457
parallel port driver modules, stacking, 28
parallel ports, 235-238
═══disabling interrupts, 268
═══preparing for interrupt handling, 253
═══running shared interrupt handlers, 276
═══stacking driver modules, 28
parameters
═══assigning values, 42
═══device, 43
═══module, 43
═════ backward compatibility issues, 50
param.h header file, 181, 205
parport device driver, 518
parse_options(), 507
partial data transfers
═══read method, 80
═══write method, 82
partitionable devices, 355-362
═══accessing data within partitions, 360
═══detecting partitions
═════ with initrd, 360
═════ in modules, 357-360
═══generic hard disk support for, 356
path directive (modprobe), 308
pausing I/O, 232
PC parallel interface, 235-238
PC/104 and PC/104+ bus architectures, 496
pci_alloc_consistent(), 407, 422
PCI_BASE_ADDRESS_ symbols, 483-486
pci_bus structure, 494, 503
pci_dev_driver(), 491
pci_dev structure, 404, 477, 503
═══backward compatibility issues, 502
═══reading configuration variables, 481
pci_device_id structure, 491, 503
═══ID fields for, 492
PCI_DMA_BIDIRECTIONAL symbol, 408, 422
PCI_DMA_FROMDEVICE symbol, 407, 422
═══bounce buffers and, 409
PCI_DMA_NONE symbol, 408, 422
pci_dma_supported(), 405, 422
pci_dma_sync_sg(), 410, 423
PCI_DMA_TODEVICE symbol, 407, 422
═══bounce buffers and, 409
pci_driver structure, 491-493, 503
═══backward compatibility issues, 503
═══handling hot-pluggable devices, 490
pci_enable_device(), 478
pci_find_class(), 478, 504
pci_find_device(), 478, 504
pci_find_slot(), 478
pci_free_consistent(), 407, 422
pci_insert_device(), 491
PCI_INTERRUPT_ symbols, 488
pci_map_sg(), 410, 423
pci_map_single(), 408, 423
pci_module_init(), 490, 504
pci_ops structure, 493
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)
═══addressing, 471-474
═══base address registers, 485-488
═══configuration registers, 475-479
═══configuration space, 473, 480-483
═══device configuration snapshot, 481
═══DMA and, 404-412
═════ dealing with difficult hardware, 405
═══DMA mappings (see DMA mappings)
═════ hardware dependencies for, 411
═════ simple example of, 411
═══drivers, alternative to, 476
═══drivers/pci directory, 523
═══geographical addressing, 473
═══hardware abstractions, 493
═══hot-pluggable devices, 489-493
═══interface of, 470-494
═══interrupts, 488
═══I/O resources, 484
═══using ioremap(), 218
═══remap_page_range and, 389
pci_present(), 477, 503
pci_read_config_ functions, 480, 504
pci_register_driver(), 490, 504
pci_remove_device(), 491
pci_resource_end(), 484
pci_resource_flags(), 484
pci_resource_start(), 484
pci_set_dma_mask(), 405
pci_sync_single(), 409, 423
pci_unmap_sg(), 410, 423
pci_unmap_single(), 408, 423
pci_unregister_driver(), 491, 504
pci_write_config_ functions, 481, 504
pcibios.h header file, 502
pcidata module, 482
pcidump program, 482
pci.h header file, 405, 422, 477, 503
═══accessing configuration space, 480
═══detecting size of PCI regions, 486
═══pci_ops structure and, 493
pciregions module, 486
PDEBUG/PDEBUGG symbols, 102
pending output, flushing, 158
performance
═══allocating socket buffers, 449
═══avoiding device collisions, 36
═══clustering requests and, 340
═══debugger use, 120
═══degrading by allocating too much memory, 216
═══managing system resources, 35-41
═══memory barriers and, 229
═══mmap method, 384
═══namespace pollution, 18
═══output buffers and, 148
═══PCI vs. ISA, 470
═══printk to debug, 103
═══raw I/O limitations to, 397
═══using request queues (see request queues)
═══string operations and, 231
peripheral bus architecture (see bus architecture)
Peripheral Component Interconnect (see PCI)
peripheral memory, 238-247
perror() vs. strace command, 110
persistence of memory, 55
PG_locked flag, 374
PG_reserved flag, 374
pgd_offset(), 377
PGD (Page Directory) page table, 375
pgd_val(), 377
pgtable.h header file, 218, 377
physical addresses, 372
═══mapping virtual addresses to, 375
pins 9/10 of parallel connector, 253
═══generating interrupts, 265
platform dependency, 11
═══bit operations and, 284
═══kmalloc flags and, 209
═══for modules, 27
═══porting and, 232-234
═══/proc/stat file, 257
platform-specific directories, 524
PLIP (Parallel Line Internet Protocol)
═══using Ethernet headers, 456
═══interrupt handling differences, 450
═══overriding ARP, 457
Plug-and-Play (PnP) specification, 496
pm.c file, 512
pmd_offset(), 377
PMD (Page Mid-level Directory) page table, 375
pmd_val(), 377
PnP (Plug-and-Play) specification, 496
pointers and invalid dereferencing, 111-118
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and interrupt handling differences, 450
policy, driver, 2-4
═══controlling devices by printing and, 140
poll method, 64, 154-159
═══data structures of, 159
poll_table_entry structure, 158
poll_table structure, 154, 158
poll_wait(), 154, 179
POLLERR flag, 155
poll.h header file, 154, 179
POLLHUP flag, 155
POLLIN flag, 155
POLLOUT flag, 155
POLLPRI flag, 155
POLLRDBAND flag, 155
POLLRDNORM flag, 155
POLLWRBAND flag, 155
POLLWRNORM flag, 155
portability, 297-302
═══data types and, 293-297
═══devfs (device filesystem), 90
═══porting and, 232-234
ports, 36-41, 229-234
═══accessing different sizes, 230
═══allocating, 39
═══avoiding collisions, 37
═══parallel (see parallel ports)
═══platform dependency and, 232-234
post-install directive (modprobe), 308
post-remove directive (modprobe), 308
PowerPC architecture
═══page tables not used in, 377
═══PCI DMA interface support, 411
═══porting and, 233
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) and interrupt handling differences, 450
pread method, 79, 91
═══llseek method and, 164
precision, temporal, 185
predefined
═══ioctl method commands, 133
═══task queues, 192-198
preemption and concurrency, 20
prefetchable bit, 483
prefixes, 18, 44
pre-install directive (modprobe), 308
preprocessor, using to monitor driver, 101-103
pre-remove directive (modprobe), 308
printing
═══controlling devices by, 140
═══to debug code, 97-103
═══from gdb debugger, 121
═══interface-specific data, 296
═══partition information, 359
═══_t data items, 296
printk.c file, 512
printk(), 15, 52
═══circular buffers for, 100
═══current pointer and, 21
═══debugging with, 97-100, 103
═══logging messages from, 100
═══loglevel strings for, 98
═══turning debug messages on/off, 101
priority
═══asynchronous notification and, 159-162
═══immediate queue, 193, 197
═══memory allocation, 36, 208
═══message (see loglevels)
private_data field (file structure), 68, 147
privileged operations, 137
probe_irq_off(), 259, 289
probe_irq_on(), 259, 289
probe method, 491
Probes, Dynamic, 127
probing, 36-41
═══backward compatibility issues, 466
═══for IRQ numbers, 258-262
═════ shared interrupts and, 276
═══for ISA memory, 245-247
═══for network devices, 432
proc_dir_entry
═══create_proc_read_entry() and, 106
═══proc_register_dynamic() and, 107
/proc filesystem
═══creating
═════ /proc entries, 106
═════ read-only /proc files, 104
═══debugging with, 103-107
═══installing an interrupt handler, 256
═══removing /proc entries, 107
═══shared interrupts and, 277
═══vs. ioctl method, 108
/proc/bus/pci file
═══backward compatibility issues, 503
═══browsing configuration space, 481
═══visibility of hardware addresses, 471
/proc/bus/pci/devices file, 474
/proc/devices file, 58
processes
═══access to multiple, 167
═══avoiding race conditions with spinlocks, 166, 281-283
═══kernel timers for, 200-203
═══opening devices for each process, 165
═══requeuing, 192
═══sleeping, 141-148
═════ race conditions and, 286-288
═══task queues for, 189-200
═══wait queues and, 141-147
═══waking up (see waking up processes)
processor.h header file, 497
processor-specific registers, 182-184
proc_fs.h header file, 104
/proc/interrupts file, 256, 289
═══shared interrupts and, 277
/proc/iomem file, 39, 53
/proc/ioports file, 37, 53
/proc/kcore file, 120
/proc/kmsg file, 100
/proc/ksyms file, 27, 53
═══ksymoops and, 115
═══module version support and, 315
═══searching for registration functions, 30
/proc/modules file, 34, 51
═══ksymoops and, 114
/proc/pci file
═══backward compatibility issues, 503
═══browsing configuration space, 482
═══visibility of hardware addresses, 471
/proc/pcidata file, 482
/proc/pciregions file
═══browsing configuration space, 486
proc_register(), 107
proc_register_dynamic(), 107
/proc/slabinfo file, 213
/proc/stat file, 257, 289
/proc/sys/kernel/printk file, reading console loglevel with, 99
producer/consumer algorithm, 279
programmable decoders, 485
programming drivers (see writing, drivers)
programs, obtaining, 12
protect method, 381
proto_ops structure, 516
pte_offset(), 377
pte_page(), 378
pte_present(), 378
pte_val(), 377
PTRS_PER_PGD macro, 377
PTRS_PER_PMD macro, 377
PTRS_PER_PTE macro, 377
put_unaligned(), 299, 304
__put_user(), 136, 178
put_user(), 136, 178
═══Linux 2.0 version, 174
pwrite method, 79, 91
═══llseek method and, 164

Q[═Top═]
quantum (memory area), 73
═══race conditions and, 76
═══reading/writing one at a time, 85
querying to debug, 103-108
queue heads, active, 342
queue_task_irq_off(), 204
queue_task_irq(), 204
queue_task(), 191, 206
═══rescheduling tasks, 192
═══running custom task queues, 198
═══scheduler queue and, 195
═══timer queue and, 196
═══vs. queue_task_irq, 204
queues
═══initializing/cleaning up, 323
═══request (see request queues)
═══scheduler queue, 192, 194-196
═══task (see task queues)
═══timer (see entries under tq_; timer queue)
═══wait (see wait queues)

R[═Top═]
race conditions, 20
═══avoiding, with wait_event macros, 142, 179
═══interrupt handling and, 278-288
═══introduction to, 76-78
═══kernel timers and, 203
═══single-processor vs. SMP systems, 166
RAID drivers
═══drivers/md directory, 519
═══"make request" function and, 346
RAM
═══probing ISA memory for, 246
═══remapping, 390-394
═══reserving high RAM addresses, 223
═══vs. I/O registers, 227-229
random numbers, 255
ranges, resource, 40
raw I/O and user-space buffers, 397-400
rd.c file, 519
rdtsc/rdtscl functions, 183, 205
read_ahead global array, 325, 367
read_lock_bh(), 283, 291
read_lock_irqsave(), 283, 291
read_lock_irq(), 283, 291
read_lock(), 283, 291
read method, 64, 78-81
═══arguments to, 79
═══code for, 81
═══configuring DMA controller, 415
═══f_pos field (file structure) and, 67, 91
═══get_info() and, 104
═══llseek method and, 163
═══poll method and, 157
═══read_proc() and, 104
═══return values, rules for interpreting, 80
═══strace command and, 109
═══syntax in Linux 2.0, 92
read_proc(), 104-107
═══connecting to /proc hierarchy, 106
read_unlock_bh(), 283, 291
read_unlock_irqrestore(), 283, 291
read_unlock_irq(), 283, 291
read_unlock(), 283, 291
read_write.c file, 513
readb(), 240, 250
readdir method, 64
reader-writer spinlocks, 283
reading
═══blocking I/O, 141-153
═══blocking/nonblocking operations, 148
═════ poll method, 154-159
═════ select method, 154-159
═════ testing, 153
═══from a device, 78-81
readl(), 240, 250
readq(), 241
readv method, 66, 84
read/write instructions, reordering, 227
read/write position, changing, 64
readw(), 240, 250
rebuild_header method, 440
═══backward compatibility issues, 466
reception of packets, 429, 448-450
═══multicasting, 460-464
reentrancy, 20, 118, 147
register_blkdev(), 322, 366
register_cdrom(), 520
register_chrdev(), 56-58, 95
═══vs. register_blkdev(), 322
register_disk(), 369
═══accessing data within partitions, 360
═══backward compatibility issues, 366
═══printing partition information, 359
═══reading generic disk partition table, 358
═══registering devices, 327
register_framebuffer(), 522
register_netdev(), 467
REGISTER_SYMTAB macro, 49
register_symtab(), 48, 51
registering
═══block drivers, 322-328
═══DMA usage, 414
═══facilities in init_module, 29-32
═══network drivers, 430
═══ports, 38
registers
═══I/O, 227-229
═══mapping, 405
═════ scatterlists and, 409
═══PCI configuration, 475-479
═══processor-specific, 182-184
release_dma_lock(), 416, 424
release_irq(), 276
release_mem_region(), 53, 250
═══backward compatibility issues, 47
═══working with I/O memory, 40, 239
release method, 65, 72
═══blocking open and, 169
═══syntax in Linux 2.0, 92
═══unmounting block devices, 349
═══(see also close method)
release_region(), 52, 250
═══backward compatibility issues, 47
═══working with I/O ports, 38, 229
remap_page_range(), 384-386, 421
═══limitations in dealing with RAM, 390
═══mapping addresses returned by ioremap, 395
remapping
═══I/O regions, 389
═══PCI regions, 485
═══RAM, 390-394
═══virtual addresses, 394
removable block devices, 352-354
remove method, 492
remove_proc_entry(), 107
__remove_wait_queue, 287, 292
remove_wait_queue(), 179, 287, 292
reordering read/write instructions, 227
repatch program, 527
request_dma(), 414, 423
request function
═══backward compatibility issues, 364
═══basic design of, 330-334
═══buffer cache and, 336
═══interrupt-driven devices and, 362
═══io_request_lock and, 338
═══multiqueue block drivers and, 343
═══register_disk and, 359
═══registering block devices, 323
═══splitting up multibuffer requests, 339
═══transferring data, 332
request_irq(), 253, 289
═══installing shared handlers, 275
═══when to call, 255
request_mem_region(), 53, 250
═══backward compatibility issues, 47
═══working with I/O memory, 40, 239
request_module(), 306, 319
═══inter_module_get_request() and, 313
═══loading modules, 307
═══modprobe program and, 306
═══security issues for module names, 309
request queues, 324
═══active queue heads and, 342
═══blk.h header file and, 328-330
═══block drivers not using, 345-348
═══buffers in, 336
═══defining, 343
═══initializing device-specific, 343
═══introduction to, 330-331
═══I/O request locks (see io_request_lock)
═══manipulating, 337
═══multiqueue block drivers and, 342-345
═══request_queue structure, 335
__request_region(), 41
request_region(), 52, 250
═══backward compatibility issues, 47
═══working with I/O ports, 38, 229
request structure, 332
═══buffer cache and, 335
═══releasing back to kernel, 338
requesting interrupts (see interrupt handlers)
requests, block driver, 330-348
═══blocking, 168
═══clustered, 340
═══handling data transfer, 332-334
═══interrupt-driven devices and, 362
═══partitionable devices and, 361
requeuing/rescheduling tasks, 192
reserved pages, remapping, 390-394
reserving high RAM addresses, 223
resetup_one_dev(), 366
resolution, time, 185
resolving Ethernet addresses, 455-458
resource ranges, 40
resources
═══allocating in Linux 2.4, 40
═══managing, 35-41
═════ backward compatibility for, 47
═══PCI, 484
restore_flags(), 252
restricting access (see access)
resume method, 492
revalidate method, 353
═══backward compatibility issues, 364
═══register_disk and, 359
ring buffers, DMA, 402
RISC processor and inline assembly code, 183
rmb(), 228, 249
rmmod program, 6, 34
═══dynamically allocating major numbers, 60
═══testing modules using, 16
ROM, probing ISA memory for, 246
route utility, 429
Rules.make file, 26
═══platform dependency and, 27
run_task_queue(), 191, 206
═══running custom task queues, 198
runtime errors, strace for, 110
RW_LOCK_UNLOCKED, 283
rwlock_t type, 283, 291

S[═Top═]
S390 architecture
═══no support for PCI bus, 411
═══porting and, 234
SA_INTERRUPT flag, 254, 289
═══fast vs. slow interrupt handling, 262
SA_SAMPLE_RANDOM flag, 255, 289
SA_SHIRQ flag, 255, 289
═══installing shared handlers, 275
SAK (Secure Attention Key) function, 119
save_flags(), 252
sbull driver (example), 321-369
═══adding raw I/O capability, 397-400
sbullr driver (example), 397-400
SBus (Sun-designed bus), 498
═══drivers/sbus directory, 524
═══performing DMA mappings on, 412
sbus.h header file, 412
scatter-gather DMA mappings, 409
scatterlist structure, 410, 423
scatterlist.h header file, 410
scatterlists, mapping, 409
sched.h header file, 52, 178, 205, 289, 291
═══capable() and, 137
═══interrupt request line functions, 253
═══jiffies value and, 182
═══kernel directory and, 512
═══wait queue code information, 147
schedule_task(), 192, 195, 206
═══backward compatibility issues, 204
schedule_timeout(), 188
scheduler queue (tq_scheduler), 192, 194-196
═══backward compatibility issues, 204
schedule(), 145, 179, 512
═══delaying execution of code, 187
═══exclusive waits and, 146
═══preventing endless loops with, 118
═══reentrant functions and, 147
screen layouts, kernel support for, 522
SCSI drivers, 7
═══drivers/scsi directory, 520
scsi_ioctl.c file, 520
scsi_module.c file, 520
scsi_register_module(), 520
scsi.c file, 520
scull driver (example), 54-94, 101, 131, 135-139
scullc driver (example), 213
scullp driver (example), 216
═══mapping RAM to user space, 391-394
scullpipe devices (examples), 150-153
scullv driver (example), 219-220, 394
Secure Attention Key (SAK) function, 119
security, 9
═══module loading and, 309
seeking a device, 163
═══in Linux version 2.0, 176
segment.h header file, 95
select method, 154-159
═══in Linux version 2.0, 175
═══poll method and, 64
selection.c file, 518
sema_init(), 76, 95
═══sysdep.h header file and, 94
semaphore.h header file, 76, 95
semaphores, 76-78
═══backward compatibility issues, 94
═══detecting deadlocks with IKD, 124
═══incrementing value of, 77
═══initializing, 76
═══not used in interrupt handlers, 279
═══protecting critical code regions, 151
═══vs. spinlocks, 166
set_bit(), 284, 291
set_config method, 441
set_current_state(), 287, 291
═══backward compatibility issues, 288
set_dma_addr(), 416, 424
set_dma_count(), 417, 424
set_dma_mode(), 416, 424
SET_FILE_OWNER macro, 93
SET_INTR macro, 329
set_mac_address method, 441
set_mb(), 229
SET_MODULE_OWNER macro, 66, 95, 467
═══backward compatibility issues, 465
═══net_device structure and, 433
set_multicast_list method, 441, 461-464
═══interface flags and, 439
set_rmb(), 229
set_wmb(), 229
setconsole program (example), 99
setterm program, 140
setup_arch(), 507
sg_dma_address(), 410, 423
sg_dma_len(), 410, 423
sharing interrupts, 274-278
short delays, 188-189
short driver (example), 237
═══accessing I/O memory, 241
═══BH implementation, 273
═══going to sleep and avoiding race conditions, 286
═══implementing
═════ interrupt handlers, 264-266
═════ probing in the driver, 261
═══installing an interrupt handler, 255
shutting down modules (see unloading modules)
SIGIO signal, 160
signal handling, 151
═══down_interruptible() and, 77
signal.c file, 512
single-open devices, 165
SIOCDEVPRIVATE commands, 458, 469
SIOCSIFADDR command, 458
SIOCSIFMAP command, 458
size of block devices, 324
sizing data explicitly, 295
sk_buff structure
═══fields for, 452
═══receiving packets, 448
═══transmitting packets, 445
skb_headroom(), 455, 468
skb_pull(), 455, 468
__skb_push(), 454, 468
═══backward compatibility issues, 465
skb_push(), 454, 468
__skb_put(), 454, 468
skb_put(), 454, 468
skb_reserve(), 455, 468
skb_tailroom(), 454, 468
skbuff.h header file, 445, 452, 468
skull driver (example), 22-44
SLAB_CACHE_DMA flag, 212, 224
SLAB_CTOR_ATOMIC flag, 212, 224
SLAB_CTOR_CONSTRUCTOR flag, 213, 224
SLAB_HWCACHE_ALIGN flag, 212, 224
SLAB_NO_REAP flag, 212, 224
slab.c file, 211, 514
sleep_on_timeout(), 142, 178
═══delaying execution, 187
sleep_on(), 142, 178
═══avoiding race conditions, 286
sleeping processes, 141-148
═══avoiding race conditions, 286-288
SLOW_DOWN_IO statement, 249
slow interrupt handlers, 262-264
═══backward compatibility issues, 288
__SMP__ symbol, 22, 50
SMP systems
═══backward compatibility issues, 48
═══concurrency in the kernel, 20
═══kernel headers and, 22
═══module version control and, 314
═══race conditions and, 76-78
═══running tasklets on, 198-200
═══spinlocks to avoid race conditions, 166
═══writing reentrant code, 147
snapshot of PCI configuration, 481
snull driver (example), 426-457
sock_ioctl(), 458
socket buffers, 445, 452-455
═══allocating, 449, 454
═══functions acting on, 454
socket.c file, 516
sockios.h header file, 458, 469
soft lockup detector (IKD), 124
softirq.c file, 512
softnet implementation and backward compatibility, 464
software loops, 188
software memory barriers, 228, 249
software versions (see version numbering)
software-mapped I/O memory, 242
sound cards, drivers for, 521
sound_install_audiodrv(), 521
SPARC architecture
═══defining disable_irq/enable_irq as pointers, 268
═══high memory, 210
═══I/O memory management support, 411
═══platform dependency and, 27
═══porting and, 234
═══SBus, 498
═════ performing DMA mappings on, 412
SPARC64 platform
═══data alignment, 300
═══directly mapped memory, 240
═══gdb debugger and, 121
═══objdump utility and, 118
═══oops messages and, 116
special files, 55
spin_is_locked(), 282, 290
spin_lock_bh(), 282, 290
spin_lock_init(), 166, 180, 281, 290
spin_lock_irqsave(), 281, 290
═══avoiding deadlocks with, 282
spin_lock_irq(), 281, 290
spin_lock(), 167, 180, 281, 290
spin_trylock(), 282, 290
spin_unlock_bh(), 282, 290
spin_unlock_irqrestore(), 282, 290
spin_unlock_irq(), 282, 290
spin_unlock_wait(), 282, 290
spin_unlock(), 167, 180, 282, 290
spinlock_t type, 166, 180, 281, 290, 367
spinlock.h header file, 166, 180, 281, 290
spinlocks, 281-283
═══dma_spin_lock, 416
═══io_request_lock, 338
═══page_table_lock, 378
═══reader-writer, 283
═══vs. semaphores, 166
═══xmit_lock, 443, 446
spull driver (example), 355-364
═══device methods for, 360
stack meter (IKD feature), 124
stacking modules, 28
standard C data types, 293
start_kernel(), 507-509
stat file, 257, 289
static symbols, 18
statistics
═══on caches, 213
═══on interrupts, 257
═══on network interfaces, 433, 441, 459
sti(), 252
stop method, 440, 443
strace command, 108-110
streaming DMA mappings, 406
═══setting up, 407-409
string operations, 231
struct page pointer, 373-375
═══backward compatibility issues, 419
struct timeval pointer, 185, 205
subsystem deviceID PCI register, 476
subsystem vendorID PCI register, 476
sunrpc subdirectory, 516
Super-H architecture
═══no support for PCI bus, 411
═══porting and, 234
supervisor mode, 19
suser(), 175
suspend method, 492
swap_state.c file, 515
swapfile.c file, 515
swapout method, 382
switch statement, with ioctl, 129, 133
symbols
═══driver-specific, 328-330
═══exporting, 29, 317
═════ in Linux 2.0, 48-50
═══hiding global, 29
═══mangling symbol names, 314-317
═══static, declaring as, 18
═══symbol table, 27-29
═════ klogd and, 114
═════ module version control and, 315
symtab_begin.h header file, 51
symtab_end.h header file, 51
sync method, 382
synchronization (see lock method; race conditions)
sys_create_module(), 24
sys_delete_module system call, 33
sys_syslog(), 98
sysctl_net.c file, 516
sysdep.h header file, 26
═══backward compatibility issue, 47-50
═══sema_init() and, 94
═══SET_FILE_OWNER macro and, 93
═══wait queues in Linux 2.0/2.2, 172
syslogd daemon
═══logging messages, 100
═══performance problems with, 103
sysrq.txt file, 119
<sys/sched.h> header file
═══capable() and, 137
system calls, 24
═══invoked by init thread, 511
system faults
═══changing message loglevels after, 99
═══debugging, 110-120
═══handling, kernels vs. applications, 19
system hangs, 118
═══precautions when reproducing, 120
system resources
═══allocating in Linux 2.4, 40
═══managing, 35-41
═════ backward compatibility for, 47
system.h header file, 228, 249
System.map file
═══klogd and, 114
═══ksymoops and, 114

T[═Top═]
_t data types, 296
tagged initialization format, 63
═══avoiding flush method, 93
═══declaring file_operations structure, 66
tail pointers and circular buffers, 280
take_over_console(), 522
TASK_EXCLUSIVE flag, 146
TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE flag, 145, 287, 291
task_queue, 191, 206
task queues, 189-200
═══backward compatibility issues, 204
═══data structures of, 190
═══declaring, 191
═══declaring custom, 198
═══driver timeline, 193
═══predefined, 192-198
═══requeuing/rescheduling tasks, 192
═══running, 191
TASK_RUNNING flag, 145, 287, 291
TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE flag, 291
tasklet_disable(), 200, 207
tasklet_enable(), 200, 207
tasklet_kill(), 200, 207
tasklet_schedule(), 199, 206, 270, 290
═══BH mechanism and, 272
tasklets, 198-200, 270
═══scheduling, 199
tcpdump program, 430
terminals, selecting for messages, 99
test_and_change_bit(), 285, 291
test_and_clear_bit(), 285, 291
test_and_set_bit(), 285, 291
test_bit(), 284, 291
testing (non)blocking operations, 153
"thundering herd" problem, 146
time, 181-207
═══delaying execution of code, 186-189
═══HZ (time frequency), 181, 297
═══kernel timers, 200-203
═══sleeping processes, 286-288
═══time intervals in the kernel, 181-184, 297
time.c/timer.c files, 512
time.h header file, 206
timeouts
═══backward compatibility issues, 204
═══of kernel timers, 201
═══scheduling, 188
═══setting up short-term, 187
═══transmission (see transmission timeouts)
TIMER_BH bottom half, 272
timer interrupts, 181
timer_list structure, 201
timer queue element structure, 190
timer queue (tq_timer), 193, 196, 206
═══BH mechanism and, 272
timer.h header file, 201, 207
timers, 200-203
timestamp counter (TSC), 183
TIOCLINUX command, 99
to_kdev_t(), 62
token ring networks, setting up interfaces for, 437
top-half vs. bottom-half handlers, 269
tq_immediate queue, 193, 197, 206
═══BH mechanism and, 272
═══writing a BH bottom half, 273
tq_scheduler queue, 192, 194-196
═══backward compatibility issues, 204
tq_struct structure, 190
tq_timer(), 193, 196, 206
═══BH mechanism and, 272
TQUEUE_BH bottom half, 272
tqueue.h header file, 190, 192, 206
tr_configure(), 437
tracing programs, 108-110
═══Linux Trace Toolkit (LTT), 127
transistor-transistor logic (TTL) levels, 235
transmission concurrency, controlling, 446
transmission of packets, 429, 445-448
═══multicasting, 460-464
transmission timeouts, 433, 447
═══tx_timeout method and, 440
═══watchdog_timeo field and, 442
traversal of linked lists, 302
troubleshooting, 97
═══porting problems, 232-234
═══race conditions, 278-288
═══system hangs, 118
═══wrong font on console, 140
═══(see also debugging)
truncating devices on open, 71
TSC (timestamp counter), 183
TTL (transistor-transistor logic) levels, 235
tunelp program, 3
tx_timeout method, 440, 447
TYPE macro, splitting minor numbers, 69
types.h header file (asm), 295
types.h header file (linux), 295, 303

U[═Top═]
u8, u16, u32, u64 data types, 295, 303
uaccess.h header file, 78, 95, 135, 177
uClinux port
═══different ld scripts needed for, 510
═══mmnommu directory, 515
udelay(), 188, 206
uint8_t/uint32_t types, 295
uintptr_t type (C99 standard), 294
uio.h header file, 84
unaligned data, 299
unaligned.h header file, 299, 304
uniqueness of ioctl command numbers, 130
universal serial bus drivers (see USB drivers)
Unix design books, 528
unix subdirectory, 516
unloading modules, 16, 34, 61
═══on demand, 305-311
═══for network drivers, 434
═══usage count and, 33, 313
═══(see also cleanup_module())
unlock_kiovec(), 396, 422
unmap_kiobuf(), 399, 422
unmap method, 381
unregister_blkdev(), 322, 366
unregister_cdrom(), 520
unregister_chrdev(), 61, 95
unregister_netdev(), 467
unregistering
═══block drivers, 322-328
═══facilities, 30
unsigned type, 230
═══platform dependencies and, 232
up(), 77, 95
urandom device, 255
usage count, 386
═══accessing data within partitions, 360
═══decremented by release method, 72
═══incremented by open method, 68
═══maintained by block drivers, 323
═══maintaining via owner field, 71
═══modules, 33, 313
═════ backward compatibility issues, 93
═══nopage method and, 392
usb_deregister(), 500, 505
usb_driver structure, 500, 505
usb_register(), 500, 505
USB (universal serial bus) drivers, 7, 500
═══call_usermodehelper and, 311
═══directory for, 524
═══lookaside caches, 211-214
═══stacking on usbcore/input modules, 28
═══writing, 500-502
usbcore module, 28
usb.h header file, 504
__USE_OLD_SELECT__ preprocessor symbol, 176
__USE_OLD_SYMTAB__, 49
user mode, 19
═══helper programs, running, 311
user space, 19
═══access to, in Linux 2.0, 173-175
═══accessing I/O ports from, 230
═══capabilities/restrictions in, 137
═══changes in access to, 94
═══entering via init process, 511
═══explicitly sizing data in, 295
═══mapping RAM to, 390-394
═══reentrant functions and, 147
═══retrieving datum from, 136
═══transferring to/from kernel space, 78-84
═══watching programs run in, 108-110
═══writing drivers in, 45
user virtual addresses, 371
User-Mode Linux, 126
users, restricting access to simultaneous, 167
UTS_RELEASE macro, 25

V[═Top═]
__va(), 372, 421
═══backward compatibility issues, 420
validating
═══block driver requests, 330
═══disk changes, 353
variables, declaring as volatile, 279
vector operations (readv/writev), 84
vendorID PCI register, 476
verify_area(), 173-175
VERIFY_ symbols, 135, 178
version dependency, 24-26
═══module version control, 314-318
version numbering, 10
═══char drivers, 55-62
═══major device numbers, 56-61
═══minor device numbers, 56, 61, 69
versioned symbols, 315
═══enabling module version control, 316
═══exporting, 317
version.h header file, 25, 52
VESA Local Bus (VLB) devices, 498
vfree(), 217, 225
═══backward compatibility issues, 248
video_device structure, 523
video devices, directory for, 522
video_register_device(), 523
video/videodev.c file, 523
virt_to_bus(), 404, 422
═══backward compatibility issues, 420
virt_to_page(), 374, 421
═══backward compatibility issues, 418
═══mapping memory with nopage, 389
virtual addresses, 372
═══assigning to devices, 242
═══mapping to physical addresses, 375
═══remapping, 394
═══Sbus peripherals and, 498
═══vmalloc and related functions, 217-220
virtual memory areas (VMAs), 378-382
═══main fields in vm_area_struct, 380
VLB (VESA Local Bus) devices, 498
vm_area_struct structure, 380
═══backward compatibility issues, 419
VM_IO flag, 381
vm_operations_struct structure, 381
vm_private_data field (vm_area_struct), 393
═══backward compatibility issues, 419
VM_RESERVED flag, 381
VMA_OFFSET macro, 387
VMALLOC_VMADDR(), 395
vmalloc.c file, 514
vmalloc.h header file, 217, 225
vmalloc(), 217-220, 225, 394
═══vs. kmalloc(), 217-219
VMAs (virtual memory areas), 378-382
═══main fields in vm_area_struct, 380
vmlinux kernel image, 510
vmscan.c file, 515
volatile, declaring variables as, 279
vremap() in Linux 2.x only, 223, 248
vsprintf.c file, 517
vt.c file, 518

W[═Top═]
wait_event_interruptible(), 142, 179, 288, 292
wait_event(), 142, 179, 288, 292
═══vs. interruptible_sleep_on(), 145
wait_queue_head_t, 178
═══new in Linux version 2.3.1, 172
═══poll table entries and, 158
═══sleeping/waking up processes, 141-143
═══working with advanced applications, 144
wait_queue_t type, 144, 179
═══poll table entries and, 158
wait queues, 141-147
═══avoiding race conditions, 287
═══defined type for, 178
═══delaying code execution, 187
═══in Linux versions 2.0/2.2, 172
═══manipulating, 144
═══poll table entries and, 158
═══putting processes into, 179
wait.h header file, 144, 178
wake_up_interruptible_sync(), 143, 178
wake_up_interruptible(), 143, 178
wake_up_sync(), 143, 178
wake_up(), 143, 178
═══resuming execution of code, 188
waking up processes, 142
═══exclusive waits and, 146
═══functions used for, 178
═══release method and, 169
-Wall flag (gcc), 23, 296
watchdog_timeo field (net_device structure), 442, 447
watching programs in user space, 108-110
web sites related to Linux kernels, xv
wmb(), 228, 249
wppage method, 382
═══backward compatibility issues, 419
wrapper functions, compiling under 2.0 headers, 92
write_lock_bh(), 283, 291
write_lock_irqsave(), 283, 291
write_lock_irq(), 283, 291
write_lock(), 283, 291
write method, 64, 78-80
═══code for, 83
═══configuring DMA controller, 415
═══f_pos field (file structure) and, 67, 91
═══input/output buffers and, 148
═══llseek method and, 163
═══poll method and, 157
═══return values, rules for interpreting, 82
═══select method and, 157
═══strace command and, 109
═══syntax in Linux 2.0, 92
write_unlock_bh(), 283, 291
write_unlock_irqrestore(), 283, 291
write_unlock_irq(), 283, 291
write_unlock(), 283, 291
writeb(), 240, 250
writel(), 240, 250
writeq(), 241
writev method, 66, 84
writew(), 240, 250
writing, 97
═══blocking I/O, 141-149
═══blocking/nonblocking operations, 148
═══control sequences to devices, 140
═══to a device, 78-80, 82-84
═══drivers
═════ using devfs, 85-91
═════ reentrant code, 147
═════ in user space, 45
═════ version numbering, 10
═════ watching user-space programs run, 108-110
═════ writer's role in, 2-4
═══interrupt handler bottom halves, 273
═══interrupt handlers, 264-268
═══makefiles, 22
═══(see also debugging)

X[═Top═]
x86 architecture
═══interrupt handling on, 263
═══limitations of platform, 510
═══PCI DMA interface support, 411
═══porting and, 233
x/i (examine instructions) command, 121
xtime variable, 185

Z[═Top═]
zImage file, 510

Back to: Table of Contents

Back to: Linux Device Drivers, 2nd Edition


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