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Книги по Linux (с отзывами читателей)

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...distributed.
The copyright notice is reproduced on the page immediately following the title page.

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...herself?
Note that while you are allowed to print out the online version, you may not run the O'Reilly book through a photocopier, and much less sell any of those (hypothetical) copies.

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...Dawson
Terry Dawson can be reached at terryd@extro.ucc.su.oz.au.

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...fun
Don't you think we could do it with sed, Vince?

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...match.
The original spirit of which (see above) still shows on some occasions in Europe.

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...bugfixes.
Not that the times had changed that much...

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...swim:
When using bash, the GNU Bourne Again Shell, you might have to escape the exclamation mark, because it uses it as its history character.

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...links.
SLIP is described in RFC-1055. The header compression CSLIP is based in is described in RFC-1144.

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...Tridgell.
NetBIOS is the protocol on which applications like lanmanager and Windows for Workgroups are based.

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...directory?
We will come back to this in chapter-gif.

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...alike.
There have been commercial you have to pay lots of money for that came with a setuid-root shell script which allowed users to gain root privilege using a simple standard trick.

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...consequences.
In 1988, the RTM worm brought much of the Internet to a grinding halt, partly by exploiting a gaping hole in some sendmail programs. This hole has long been fixed since.

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...tripwire
Written by Gene Kim and Gene Spafford.

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...NIC.
Frequently, IP-addresses will be assigned to you by the provider you buy your IP-connectivity from. However, you may also apply to NIC directly for an IP address for your network by sending a mail to hostmaster@internic.net.

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...versa.
Autonomous systems are slightly more general, however. They may comprise more than one IP-network.

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...daemon.
routed is considered broken by many people. Since gated supports RIP as well, it is better to use that instead.

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...directly.
If it didn't, then DNS would be about as bad as any other method, because each query would involve the root name servers.

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...domain.
Well, almost. A name server at least has to provide name service for localhost and reverse lookups of 127.0.0.1.

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...IRQ.
IRQs 2 and 9 are the same because the PC has two cascaded interrupt processors with eight IRQs each; the secondary processor is connected to IRQ-2 of the primary one.

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...links.
This is to avoid fragmentation by links that have a very small maximum packet size.

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...Gortmaker.
Paul can be reached at gpg109@rsphysse.anu.edu.au.

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...telnet.
NCSA telnet is a popular program for DOS that runs TCP/IP over Ethernet or PLIP, and supports telnet and FTP.

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...Hankins,
To be reached at gregh@cc.gatech.edu.

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...NSC-16550A
There was also a NSC-16550, but it's FIFO never really worked.

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...each.
The last number on each subnet is reserved as the broadcast address, so it's in fact 63 hosts per subnet.

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...used.
You will need the address of any NIS servers only if you use Peter Eriksson's NYS. Other NIS implementations locate their servers at run-time only by using ypbind.

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...this:
Note that names in networks must not collide with hostnames from the hosts file, else some programs may produce strange results.

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...device
Anyone remember Pink Floyd's ``Echoes''?

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...operation.
For instance, all applications based on RPC use the loopback interface to register themselves with the portmapper daemon at startup.

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...commands:
Note that pointopoint is not a typo. It's really spelt like this.

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...191.72.1.1.
Just as a matter of caution, you should however configure a PLIP or SLIP link only after you have completely set up the routing table entries for your Ethernets. With some older kernels, your network route might otherwise end up pointing at the point-to-point link.

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...vbardolino.
You can tell whether a connection is outgoing or not from the port numbers involved. The port number shown for the calling host will always be a simple integer, while on the host being called, a well-known service port will be in use, for which netstat uses the symbolic name found in /etc/services.

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...queries.
There are various named binaries floating around FTP sites, each configured a little differently. Some have their pid file in /etc, some store it in /tmp or /var/tmp.

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...HREF="node87.html#resolvfignamedboot">gif.
Note that the domain names in this example are given without trailing dot. Earlier versions of named seem to treat trailing dots in named.boot as an error, and silently discards the line. BIND-4.9.3 is said to fix this.

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...chapter.
Note that you can't query your name server for the root servers if you don't have any root server hints installed: Catch-22! To escape this dilemma, you can either make nslookup use a different name server, or you can use the sample file in figure-gif as a starting point, and then obtain the full list of valid servers.

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...IP-packets.
Van Jacobson header compression is described in RFC-1441.

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...for.
dip means Dialup IP. It was written by Fred van-Kempen.

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...root.
diplogin can (and must) be run setuid, too. See the section at the end of this chapter.

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.../etc/dip.pid:
See the newsgroup alt.tla for more palindromic fun with three-letter acronyms.

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...RFCs.
The relevant RFCs are listed in the Annoted Bibiliography at the end of this book.

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...HDLC,
In fact, HDLC is a much more general protocol devised by the International Standards Organization (ISO).

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...Longyear.
Both authors have said they will be very busy for some time to come. If you have any questions on PPP in general, you'd best ask the people on the NET channel of the activists mailing list.

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...Fox.
karl@morningstar.com.

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...option.
The default network route is only installed if none is present yet.

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...facility.
If you edit syslog.conf to redirect these log messages to a file, make sure this file isn't world readable, as chat also logs the entire chat script by default-- including passwords and all.

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...hostnames.
Using hostnames in this option has consequences on CHAP authentication. Please refer to the section on CHAP below.

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...established.
You can allow the peer PPP to override your ideas of IP addresses by giving pppd the ipcp-accept-local and ipcp-accept-remote options. Please refer to the manual page for details.

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...vlager:
The double quotes are not part of the password, they merely serve to protect the white space within the password.

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...c3po.lucas.com,
This hostname is taken from the CHAP challenge.

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...tcpd,
Written by Wietse Venema, wietse@wzv.win.tue.nl.

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...dot.
Usually only local host names obtained from lookups in /etc/hosts contain no dots.

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...ignored.
In an NFS environment, you may need to give it a protection of 444, because the super user is often very restricted in accessing files on disks mounted via NFS.

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...hosts.equiv
Note that the hosts.equiv file is not searched when someone attempts to log in as root.

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...Thümmler.
To be reached at swen@uni-paderborn.de. The NIS clients are available as yp-linux.tar.gz from sunsite.unc.edu in system/Network.

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...yps.
The current version (as of this writing) is yps-0.21 and can be obtained from ftp.lysator.liu.se in the /pub/NYS directory.

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...Eriksson,
To be reached at pen@lysator.liu.se.

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...files.
DBM is a simple database management library that uses hashing techniques to speed up search operations. There's a free DBM implementation from the GNU project called gdbm, which is part of most distributions.

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...problem.
The source for yp-linux can be gotten from ftp.uni-paderborn.de in directory /pub/Linux/LOCAL.

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...Sladkey,
Rick can be reached at jrs@world.std.com.

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...vale:
Note that you can omit the -t nfs argument, because mount sees from the colon that this specifies an NFS volume.

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...someday.
The problem with write-behind is that the kernel buffer cache is indexed by device/inode pairs, and therefore can't be used for NFS-mounted file systems.

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...circumstances.
As explained to me by Alan Cox: The NFS specification requires the server to flush each write to disk before it returns an acknowledgement. As BSD kernels are only capable of page-sized writes (4K), writing a 4 chunks of 1K each to a BSD-based NFS server results in 4 write operations of 4K each.

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...volumes
One doesn't say file system, because these are not proper file systems.

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...UUCP-1.04,
Written and copyrighted by Ian Taylor, 1993.

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...600.
Note that although most UUCP commands must be setuid to uucp, you must make sure the uuchk program is not. Otherwise, users will be able to display passwords even though they have mode 600.

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...machine.
If you're just going to try out UUCP, get the number of an archive site near you. Write down the login and password-- they're public to make anonymous downloads possible. In most cases, they're something like uucp/uucp or nuucp/uucp.

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...standards.
The only limitation is that it shouldn't be longer than 7-characters, so as to not confuse hosts with filesystems that impose a narrow limit on file names.

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...name.
The UUCP Mapping Project registers all UUCP hostnames world-wide and makes sure they are unique. To register your UUCP name, ask the maintainers of the site that handles your mail; they will be able to help you with it.

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...on.
Older Version 2 UUCP's don't broadcast their name when being called; however, newer implementations often do, and so does Taylor UUCP.

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...set.
The Baud rate of the tty must be at least as high as the maximum transfer speed.

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...request.
If the remote system runs Taylor UUCP, it will obey.

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.../dev/cua1.
Some people use the ttyS* devices instead, which are intended for dial-in only.

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...mode.
You can also configure some modems to reset themselves when detecting a transition on DTR. Some of them, however, don't seem to like this, and occasionally get hung.

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...rnews:
rsmtp is used to deliver mail with batched SMTP. This is described in the mail chapters.

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.../etc/inetd.conf:
Note that usually, tcpd has mode 700, so that you must invoke it as user root, not uucp as you would usually do.

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...option.
The -u option is present in 1.04, too, but is only a no-op.

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...4096.
Most binaries included in distributions default to a window size of 7 and 128 byte packets.

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...files
That is, files whose name begins with a dot. Such files aren't normally displayed by the ls command.

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...line.
It is customary to append a signature or .sig to a mail message, usually containing information on the author, along with a joke or a motto. It is offset from the mail message by a line containing ``- ''.

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...space.
This is because disk space is usually allocated in blocks of 1024 Bytes. So even a message of at most 400 Bytes will eat a full KB.

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...host::user.
When trying to reach a DECnet address from an RFC-822 environment, you may use "host::user"@relay, where relay is the name of a known Internet-DECnet relay.

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...Usenet.
Maps for sites registered with The UUCP Mapping Project are distributed through the newsgroup comp.mail.maps; other organizations may publish separate maps for their network.

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...world-wide.
They are posted regularly in news.lists.ps-maps. Beware. They're HUGE.

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.../usr/sbin/sendmail.
This is the new standard location of sendmail according to the File System Standard. Another common location is /usr/lib.

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...instead.
The reason is this: Assume your hostname is monad, but is not registered in the maps. However, there is a site in the maps called monad, so every mail to monad!root, even sent from a direct UUCP neighbor of yours, will wind up on the other monad. This is a nuisance for everybody.

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...consolation.
Don't use this if you're in a really bad mood.

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...FTP.
If you bought this with a distribution from a vendor, you are entitled to the source code ``for a nominal shipping charge'', according to smail's copying conditions.

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...distribution,
The default configuration files can be found in samples/generic below the source directory.

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...connections.
The authors call this support ``simple''. For a future version of smail, they advertise a complete backend which will handle this more efficiently.

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...path.
However, the use of routes in the Internet is discouraged altogether. Fully qualified domain names should be used instead.

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...program
deliver was written by Chip Salzenberg (chip%tct@ateng.com). It is part of several distributions and can be found in the usual anonymous FTP archives such as ftp.uu.net.

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...value.
The format of Usenet news messages is specified in RFC-1036, ``Standard for interchange of USENET messages''.

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...day.
Wait a moment: 60-Megs at 9600-bps, that's 60 million by 1200, that is...mutter, mutter,...Hey! That's 34-hours!

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...batching.
The golden rule of netnews, according to Geoff Collyer: ``Thou shalt batch thine articles.''

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...NNTP.
Described in RFC-977.

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...resource,
Some people claim that Usenet is a conspiracy by modem and hard disk vendors.

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...group.
There may be a difference between the groups that exist at your site, and those that your site is willing to receive. For example, the subscription list may specify comp.all, which means all newsgroups below the comp hierarchy, but at your site, only a number of comp groups are listed in active. articles posted to those groups will be moved to junk.

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...entry,
Note that this should be the crontab of news, in order not to mangle file permissions.

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...own.
If you don't care about the number of spool files (because you're the only person using your computer, and you don't write articles by the megabyte), you may replace the script's contents by a simple exit 0 statement.

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...batch.
As shipped with C-News, compcun uses compress with the 12-bit option, since this is the least common denominator for most sites. You may produce a copy of it, say compcun16, where you use 16-bit compression. The improvement is not too impressive, though.

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...doexpire.
In older versions of C News, this was done by a script called upact.

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...expiration.
The article's date of arrival is kept in the middle field of the history line, given in seconds since January-1, 1970.

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...them.
I don't know why this happens, but for me, it does from time to time.

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...newsmaster,
There's a funny typo in RFC-1036 (p.12): ``Implementors and administrators may choose to allow control messages to be carried out automatically, or to queue them for annual processing.''

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...network.
I wouldn't try this on the Internet, either.

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...Standard.
Formally specified in RFC-977.

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...information.
When posting an article over NNTP, the server always adds at least one header field, which is Nntp-Posting-Host:. It contains the client's host name.

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...faking.
The same problem exists with SMTP, the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

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...tass.
Written by Rich Skrenta.

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...minutes.
Things improve drastically if the NNTP server does the threading itself, and lets the client retrieve the threads databases; INN-1.4 does this, for instance.

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...account.
However, do not use nobody for this. As a rule, no files or commands whatsoever should be associated with this user.

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...it.
This is the reason why you will get ugly error messages when invoking it as super user. But then, you shouldn't work as root, anyway.

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...removed.
Note that C-news doesn't update this low water mark automatically; you have to run updatemin to do so. Please refer to chapter-gif.

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...appear.
This is because their order has to agree with that of the entries in the (binary) MASTER file.

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Andrew Anderson
Thu Mar 7 23:22:06 EST 1996

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