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5.2. Escaping

Escaping is a method of quoting single characters. The escape (\) preceding a character tells the shell to interpret that character literally.

Caution

With certain commands and utilities, such as echo and sed, escaping a character may have the opposite effect - it can toggle on a special meaning for that character.

Special meanings of certain escaped characters

used with echo and sed

\n

means newline

\r

means return

\t

means tab

\v

means vertical tab

\b

means backspace

\a

means alert (beep or flash)

\0xx

translates to the octal ASCII equivalent of 0nn, where nn is a string of digits

Example 5-2. Escaped Characters

#!/bin/bash
# escaped.sh: escaped characters

echo; echo

# Escaping a newline.
# ------------------

echo ""

echo "This will print
as two lines."
# This will print
# as two lines.

echo "This will print \
as one line."
# This will print as one line.

echo; echo

echo "============="


echo "\v\v\v\v"      # Prints \v\v\v\v literally.
# Use the -e option with 'echo' to print escaped characters.
echo "============="
echo "VERTICAL TABS"
echo -e "\v\v\v\v"   # Prints 4 vertical tabs.
echo "=============="

echo "QUOTATION MARK"
echo -e "\042"       # Prints " (quote, octal ASCII character 42).
echo "=============="

# The $'\X' construct makes the -e option unnecessary.
echo; echo "NEWLINE AND BEEP"
echo $'\n'           # Newline.
echo $'\a'           # Alert (beep).

echo "==============="
echo "QUOTATION MARKS"
# Version 2 and later of Bash permits using the $'\nnn' construct.
# Note that in this case, '\nnn' is an octal value.
echo $'\t \042 \t'   # Quote (") framed by tabs.

# It also works with hexadecimal values, in an $'\xhhh' construct.
echo $'\t \x22 \t'  # Quote (") framed by tabs.
# Thank you, Greg Keraunen, for pointing this out.
# Earlier Bash versions allowed '\x022'.
echo "==============="
echo





# Assigning ASCII characters to a variable.
# ----------------------------------------
quote=$'\042'        # " assigned to a variable.
echo "$quote This is a quoted string, $quote and this lies outside the quotes."

echo

# Concatenating ASCII chars in a variable.
triple_underline=$'\137\137\137'  # 137 is octal ASCII code for '_'.
echo "$triple_underline UNDERLINE $triple_underline"

echo

ABC=$'\101\102\103\010'           # 101, 102, 103 are octal A, B, C.
echo $ABC

echo; echo

escape=$'\033'                    # 033 is octal for escape.
echo "\"escape\" echoes as $escape"
#                                   no visible output.

echo; echo

exit 0

See Example 36-1 for another example of the $' ... ' string-expansion construct.

\"

gives the quote its literal meaning

echo "Hello"                     # Hello
echo "\"Hello\" ... he said."    # "Hello" ... he said.
\$

gives the dollar sign its literal meaning (variable name following \$ will not be referenced)

echo "\$variable01"           # $variable01
echo "The book cost \$7.98."  # The book cost $7.98.
\\

gives the backslash its literal meaning

echo "\\"  # Results in \

# Whereas . . .

echo "\"   # Invokes secondary prompt from the command-line.
           # In a script, gives an error message.

# However . . .

echo '\'   # Results in \

Note
The behavior of \ depends on whether it is escaped, strong-quoted, weak-quoted, or appearing within command substitution or a here document.
                      #  Simple escaping and quoting
echo \z               #  z
echo \\z              # \z
echo '\z'             # \z
echo '\\z'            # \\z
echo "\z"             # \z
echo "\\z"            # \z

                      #  Command substitution
echo `echo \z`        #  z
echo `echo \\z`       #  z
echo `echo \\\z`      # \z
echo `echo \\\\z`     # \z
echo `echo \\\\\\z`   # \z
echo `echo \\\\\\\z`  # \\z
echo `echo "\z"`      # \z
echo `echo "\\z"`     # \z

                      # Here document
cat <<EOF              
\z                      
EOF                   # \z

cat <<EOF              
\\z                     
EOF                   # \z

# These examples supplied by StИphane Chazelas.
Elements of a string assigned to a variable may be escaped, but the escape character alone may not be assigned to a variable.
variable=\
echo "$variable"
# Will not work - gives an error message:
# test.sh: : command not found
# A "naked" escape cannot safely be assigned to a variable.
#
#  What actually happens here is that the "\" escapes the newline and
#+ the effect is        variable=echo "$variable"
#+                      invalid variable assignment

variable=\
23skidoo
echo "$variable"        #  23skidoo
                        #  This works, since the second line
                        #+ is a valid variable assignment.

variable=\ 
#        \^    escape followed by space
echo "$variable"        # space

variable=\\
echo "$variable"        # \

variable=\\\
echo "$variable"
# Will not work - gives an error message:
# test.sh: \: command not found
#
#  First escape escapes second one, but the third one is left "naked",
#+ with same result as first instance, above.

variable=\\\\
echo "$variable"        # \\
                        # Second and fourth escapes escaped.
                        # This is o.k.
Escaping a space can prevent word splitting in a command's argument list.
file_list="/bin/cat /bin/gzip /bin/more /usr/bin/less /usr/bin/emacs-20.7"
# List of files as argument(s) to a command.

# Add two files to the list, and list all.
ls -l /usr/X11R6/bin/xsetroot /sbin/dump $file_list

echo "-------------------------------------------------------------------------"

# What happens if we escape a couple of spaces?
ls -l /usr/X11R6/bin/xsetroot\ /sbin/dump\ $file_list
# Error: the first three files concatenated into a single argument to 'ls -l'
#        because the two escaped spaces prevent argument (word) splitting.

The escape also provides a means of writing a multi-line command. Normally, each separate line constitutes a different command, but an escape at the end of a line escapes the newline character, and the command sequence continues on to the next line.

(cd /source/directory && tar cf - . ) | \
(cd /dest/directory && tar xpvf -)
# Repeating Alan Cox's directory tree copy command,
# but split into two lines for increased legibility.

# As an alternative:
tar cf - -C /source/directory . |
tar xpvf - -C /dest/directory
# See note below.
# (Thanks, StИphane Chazelas.)

Note

If a script line ends with a |, a pipe character, then a \, an escape, is not strictly necessary. It is, however, good programming practice to always escape the end of a line of code that continues to the following line.

echo "foo
bar" 
#foo
#bar

echo

echo 'foo
bar'    # No difference yet.
#foo
#bar

echo

echo foo\
bar     # Newline escaped.
#foobar

echo

echo "foo\
bar"     # Same here, as \ still interpreted as escape within weak quotes.
#foobar

echo

echo 'foo\
bar'     # Escape character \ taken literally because of strong quoting.
#foo\
#bar

# Examples suggested by StИphane Chazelas.

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