Библиотека сайта или "Мой Linux Documentation Project"
The book is available and called simply "Understanding The Linux Virtual Memory Manager". There is a lot of additional material in the book that is not available here, including details on later 2.4 kernels, introductions to 2.6, a whole new chapter on the shared memory filesystem, coverage of TLB management, a lot more code commentary, countless other additions and clarifications and a CD with lots of cool stuff on it. This material (although now dated and lacking in comparison to the book) will remain available although I obviously encourge you to buy the book from your favourite book store :-) . As the book is under the Bruce Perens Open Book Series, it will be available 90 days after appearing on the book shelves which means it is not available right now. When it is available, it will be downloadable from http://www.phptr.com/perens so check there for more information.
To be fully clear, this webpage is not the actual book.
Next: 7.1 Managing Free Blocks Up: understand-html Previous: 6.5 Retiring the Boot   Contents   Index
This chapter describes how physical pages are managed and allocated in Linux. The principal algorithm used is the Binary Buddy Allocator, devised by Knowlton [#!knowlton65!#] and further described by Knuth [#!knuth68!#]. It is has been shown to be extremely fast in comparison to other allocators [#!korn85!#].
This is an allocation scheme which combines a normal power-of-two allocator with free buffer coalescing [#!vahalia96!#] and the basic concept behind it is quite simple. Memory is broken up into large blocks of pages where each block is a power of two number of pages. If a block of the desired size is not available, a large block is broken up in half and the two blocks are buddies to each other. One half is used for the allocation and the other is free. The blocks are continuously halved as necessary until a block of the desired size is available. When a block is later freed, the buddy is examined and the two coalesced if it is free.
This chapter will begin with describing how Linux remembers what blocks of memory are free. After that the methods for allocating and freeing pages will be discussed in details. The subsequent section will cover the flags which affect the allocator behavior and finally the problem of fragmentation and how the allocator handles it will be covered.
- 7.1 Managing Free Blocks
- 7.2 Allocating Pages
- 7.3 Free Pages
- 7.4 Get Free Page (GFP) Flags
- 7.5 Avoiding Fragmentation
Next: 7.1 Managing Free Blocks Up: understand-html Previous: 6.5 Retiring the Boot   Contents   Index Mel 2004-02-15
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