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4.2. The command-line history

Using═the═command═history

Use the up and down key's to scroll through previously typed commands. Press [Enter] to execute them or use the left and right arrow keys to edit the command first. Also see history (below).

The═history═command

The history command can be used to list Bash's log of the commands you have typed:

This log is called the “history”. To access it type:

history n

This will only list the last n commands. Type “history” (without options) to see the the entire history list.

You can also type !n to execute command number n. Use !! to execute the last command you typed.

!-n will execute the command n times before (in other words !-1 is equivalent to !!).

!string will execute the last command starting with that “string” and !?string? will execute the last command containing the word “string”. For example:

!cd

Will re-run the command that you last typed starting with “cd”.

“ commandName !*” will execute the “commandName” with any arguments you used on your last command. This maybe useful if you make a spelling mistake, for example. If you typed:

emasc /home/fred/mywork.java /tmp/testme.java

In an attempt to execute emacs on the above two files this will obviously fail. So what you can do is type:

emacs !*

This will execute emacs with the arguments that you last typed on the command-line. In other words this is equivalent to typing:

emacs /home/fred/mywork.java /tmp/testme.java
Searching═through═the═Command═History═( CTRL-R )

Use the CTRL-R key to perform a “reverse-i-search”. For example, if you wanted to use the command you used the last time you used snort, you would type:

CTRL-R then type “snort”.

What you will see in the console window is:

(reverse-i-search)`':

After you have typed what you are looking for, use the CTRL-R key combination to scroll backward through the history.

Use CTRL-R repeatedly to find every reference to the string you've entered. Once you've found the command you're looking for, use [Enter] to execute it.

Alternatively, using the right or left arrow keys will place the command on an actual command-line so you can edit it.

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