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Separating your CLI back end from a GUI interface has become an even more attractive strategy since the transformation of computing by the World Wide Web in the mid-1990s. For a large class of applications, it makes increasing sense not to write a custom GUI front end at all, but rather to press Web browsers into service in that role.

This approach has many advantages. The most obvious is that you don't have to write procedural GUI code — instead, you can describe the GUI you want in languages (HTML and JavaScript) that are specialized for it. This avoids a lot of expensive and complex single-purpose coding and often more than halves the total project effort. Another is that it makes your application instantly Internet-ready; the front end may be on the same host as the back end, or may be a thousand miles away. Yet another is that all the minor presentation details of the application (such as fonts and color) are no longer your back end's problem, and indeed can be customized by users to their own tastes through mechanisms like browser preferences and cascading style sheets. Finally, the uniform elements of the Web interface substantially ease the user's learning task.

There are disadvantages. The two most important are (a) the batch style of interaction that the Web enforces, and (b) the difficulties of managing persistent sessions using a stateless protocol. Though these are not exclusively Unix issues, we'll discuss them here — because it's very important to think clearly on the design level about when it's worthwhile to accept or work around these constraints.

CGI, the Common Gateway Interface through which a browser can invoke a program on the server host, does not support fine-grained interactivity well. Nor do the templating systems, application servers, and embedded server scripts that are gradually replacing it (in a mild abuse of language, we will use CGI for all of these in this section).

You can't do character-by-character or GUI-gesture-by-GUI-gesture I/O through a CGI gateway; instead, you have to fill out an HTML form and click a submit button that sends the form contents to a CGI script. The CGI script then runs and the server hands you back a page of HTML that it generated (which may itself be another CGI form).

This is essentially a batch style of interaction, not that far removed in concept from dropping punched cards in an input hopper and getting back a printout. It can be made more palatable by using JavaScript to interact with the user, batching up transactions into messages to be shipped to the server.

Java applets can open up their own character-stream connections back to the server to support smoother interactivivity. But Java has technical problems (it can only use a fixed display area on the page, and can't change the portion of the display outside that rectangle) and much worse political ones (proprietary licensing from Sun has stalled Java deployment and made others reluctant to commit to it; you can't count on every user's browser to support it).

Both Java and JavaScript can run into browser incompatibilities, as well. Microsoft's resistance to implementing JDK 1.2 and Swing on Internet Explorer is a serious problem for Java applets, and differing Javascript version levels can also break your application (though Javascript bugs are easier to fix). Nevertheless, it is frequently less effort to work around these problems than it would be to write and deploy a custom front end. A problem harder to work around is that a growing number of sophisticated users routinely disable Java and even JavaScript in their browsers because of security problems and interface abuses.

As an independent issue, it is tricky to maintain session information across multiple CGI forms. The server doesn't keep any state about client sessions between CGI transactions, so you can't rely on it to connect later form submissions with earlier ones by the same user. There are two standard dodges around this: chained forms and browser cookies.

When you chain forms, you arrange for the CGI for the first form to generate a unique ID in an invisible field of the second form, and for the second and all subsequent forms to pass that ID to their successors. Cookies give a similar effect in a less direct way analogous to environment variables (see any of the hundreds of books on CGI design for details). In either case, your CGI has to use the ID as a session index (or cookies to cache state directly) and to handle multiplexing the sessions explicitly.

It is often possible to live with these restrictions. Many nontrivial applications can fit into a single form and response, evading both problems. Even when this isn't true and the application requires multiple forms, the complexity and cost savings from not having to build and distribute a specialized front end are so large that they can easily pay for the effort required to write CGIs smart enough to do their own session tracking.

The session management problem can be addressed with application servers like Zope or Enhydra which provide a session abstraction, and services like user authentication to programs embedded inside them. The drawback of these programs is identical to their advantage: the fact that they make it easier to keep per-user state on the server. That per-user state can be a problem; it eats resources, and it has to be timed out, because between transactions there is no way to know that the user is still on the other end of the wire.

As usual, the best advice is to choose the simplest pattern possible. Resist the temptation to do a heavyweight design relying on Java or an application server when simple CGIs and cookies will do the job.

One problem with the browser-as-universal-front-end approach is that CGI back ends aren't readily separable from the browser environment, so it can be hard to script or automate transactions to the back end. The Unix answer is a three-tier architecture — Web forms calling CGIs which call commands. The automation interface is the commands.

The way that browsers decouple front and back ends has larger implications. On the Web, locking in consumers to closed, proprietary protocols and APIs has become more difficult and less attractive as this trend has advanced. The economics of software development are therefore tilting toward HTML, XML, and other open, text-based Internet standards. This trend synergizes in interesting ways with the evolution of the open-source development model, which we'll survey in Chapter═19. In the world that the Web is creating, Unix's design tradition — including the approaches to interface design we've surveyed in this chapter — looks more at home than ever before.


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