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   This FAQ describes what the possible causes are for an effect that
   bothers lots of people lately. Namely that a linux(*)-kernel (or any
   other large package for that matter) compile crashes with a "signal
   11". The cause can be software or (most likely) hardware. Read on to
   find out more.
   (*) Of course nothing is Linux specific. If your hardware is flaky,
   Linux, Windows 3.1, FreeBSD, Windows NT and NextStep will all crash.
   If all is ok, this is now part of the Mini-Howto collection for Linux.
   If you're interested, the Web version of this document is now (june
   '96) accessed about 300 times per week. (a growth of a factor of three
   in 3 months)
   If you are not reading this at http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/, that's
   where you can find the most recent version.
   Email me at R.E.Wolff@BitWizard.nl if you find any spelling errors,
   worthwhile additions or with an "it also happened to me" story. (Note
   that I reject some suggested additions on my belief that it is
   technical nonsense).
The Sig11 FAQ

   My kernel compile crashes with

      gcc: Internal compiler error: program cc1 got fatal signal 11

   What is wrong with the compiler? Which version of the compiler do I
   need? Is there something wrong with the kernel?
   Most likely there is nothing wrong with your installation, your
   compiler or kernel. It very likely has something to do with your
   hardware. There are a variety of subsystems that can be wrong, and
   there is a variety of ways to fix it. Read on, and you'll find out
   Ok it may not be the software, How do I know for sure?
   First lets make sure it is the hardware that is causing your trouble.
   When the "make" stops, simply type "make" again. If it compiles a few
   more files before stopping, it must be hardware that is causing you
   troubles. If it immediately stops again (i.e. scans a few directories
   with "nothing to be done for xxxx" before bombing at exactly the same
   place), try

        dd if=/dev/hda of=/dev/null bs=1024k count=16

   Change "hda" to "sda" if you have a SCSI disk. Change the count=16 to
   the number of megabytes of main memory that you have. This will cause
   the first 16Mb of your harddisk to be read from disk, forcing the C
   source files and the gcc binary to be reread from disk the next time
   you run it. Now type make again. If it still stops in the same place
   I'm starting to wonder if you're reading the right FAQ, as it is
   starting to look like a software problem after all.... Take a peek at
   the "what are the other possibilities" question..... If without this
   "dd" command the compiler keeps on stopping at the same place, but
   moves to another place after you use the "dd" you definitely have a
   disk->ram transfer problem.
   What does it really mean?
   Well, the compiler accessed memory outside its memory range. If this
   happens on working hardware it's a programming error inside the
   compiler. That's why it says "internal compiler error". However when
   the hardware occasionally flips a bit, gcc uses so many pointers, that
   it is likely to end up accessing something outside of its addressing
   range. (random addresses are mostly outside your addressing range, as
   not very many people have a significant part of 4G as mainmemory...
   Ok. I may have a hardware problem what is it?
   If it happens to be the hardware it can be:
     * Main memory. Your main memory might be getting an occasional bit
       wrong. If this happens on the "writes", you won't see any parity
       errors. There are several ways to fix it:
          + The memory speed might be too slow. Increase the number of
            wait states in the BIOS.
            This could be caused by the AMIBIOSs autoconfig option: it
            may only know about 486s running upto 80 MHz, whereas you
            currently buy 100 MHz versions. -- Pat V.
          + The memory speed might be too slow. Get faster DRAM SIMMs.
            For example current ASUS motherboards require 60 ns DRAM if
            you have a 100, or 133 MHz processor (Take a look in your
            motherboard's manual). I've heard reports that 70 ns also
            works, reliability problems like random sig11's belong to the
            possibilities.... (I wouldn't take the risk) -- Andrew
            Eskilsson (mpt95aes@pt.hk-r.se)
          + There is a bad chip on one of the SIMMs. If you own more than
            1 bank of memory you might be able to pull SIMMs and see if
            the problem goes away. Be careful for STATIC!!!
          + We handled a hard one here the last week. It turned out that
            ALL 4 16Mb SIMMs were broken in that they dropped a bit
            around once per hour. This was sufficient to crash the
            machine in about a day, or crash a kernel compile in about an
            hour. A new set of SIMMs works perfectly. It took a long
            while to diagnose this one, because all 4 of the SIMMs were
            affected equally, so leaving half of the memory out didn't
            change things.
            Mark Kettner (kettner@cat.et.tudelft.nl) reports that his
            system was capable of running my memory test for 2300 times
            faultlessly, but then detected around 10 errors. It then
            continued detecting no faults for a few hundred runs
            again..... In his case running kernel compiles was a much
            more efficient way of detecting the health of the system (in
            the most stable configuration the system could compile around
            14 kernels before going bzurk). His solution was to "trade
            in" the old memory for a so called "memory upgrade". The
            shopkeeper then "tests" in their memory tester, which OKs the
            memory. he then got a good discount on the new memory :-).
          + It seems that some 30-72 pin converters can cause memory
            errors. (It hasn't been proven whether the 4 SIMMS in the
            converter had gone bad, or if the SIMM converter was at
            fault. The SIMMS had been functioning perfectly for years
            before they were moved into the converter....) -- Naresh
            Sharma (n.sharma@is.twi.tudelft.nl). Paul Gortmaker
            (paul.gortmaker@anu.edu.au) adds that the SIMM converters
            should have at least 4 bypass capacitors to keep the power
            supply of the SIMMs clean.
          + If the refresh of the DRAM isn't functioning properly, the
            DRAMs will slowly lose their information. Some (486)
            motherboards stop refreshing correctly when you turn on
            "hidden refresh". There seems to be a program called "dram"
            around that can also mess up your refresh to cause sig11
            problems. -- Hank Barta (hank@pswin.chi.il.us), Ron Tapia
          + The number of waitstates could be too low. Increase the
            number of waiststates in the BIOS for a fix. The Intel
            Endeavour board doesn't allow you to increase the memory
            waitstates. This can supposedly be fixed by flashing a MR
            BIOS into the motherboard. -- David Halls
     * Cache memory. Your cache memory might be getting an occasional bit
       wrong. Caches are usually not equipped with parity. You can
       diagnose that this is the case by turning off the cache in the
       BIOS. If the problem goes away it is probably the cache. There are
       several ways to fix it:
          + The cache memory speed might be too slow. Increase the number
            of wait states in the BIOS.
          + The cache memory speed might be too slow. Get faster SRAM
          + There is a bad chip in your cache. It is unlikely that you
            can swap chips as easily as with SIMMs. Be careful for
            STATIC!!! -- Joseph Barone (barone@mntr02.psf.ge.com)
          + The cache might be set to "write back" while there is a bug
            in the write back implementation of your chipset. The
            motherboard where this happened was a "MV020 486VL3H" (with
            20M RAM) -- Scott Brumbaugh (scottb@borris.beachnet.com)
            (Mail address doesn't work. Scott: Get back at me with a
            valid return address)
          + The motherboard may require a jumper to switch between Cache
            On A Stick and the old-fashioned dip chip cache. (JP16 on Rev
            2.4 ASUS motherboards)
     * Disk transfers. A block coming from disk might incur an occasional
       bit error.
          + If you have this problem, you are most likely to have to do
            the "dd" command to "move" the problem from one place to the
          + Some IDE harddisks cannot handle the "irq_unmasking" option.
            This may only show under load. And it could show as a sig11.
          + Do you have a kalok 31xx? Throw it in the garbage. (or sell
            it to a DOS user)
          + SCSI? Termination? A short bus might still work (unreliably
            that is) with bad termination. A long bus might get errors
            anyway. Can you turn on parity on the host and the DISK?
     * Overclocking. Some vendors (or private people) think it is
       possible to overclock some CPUs. Some of them may work others
       don't. You might want to try turning off turbo (note that most
       pentium motherboards no longer support a non-turbo mode) and see
       if the problem goes away. Check the speed of your CPU compared
       (printed on it, carefully remove the fan if necessary) with what
       the motherboard jumpers or BIOS settings say.... It seems that
       even Intel may make mistakes in this area. I now have a reliable
       report that an official 120MHz pentium would Sig11 at 120, but not
       at 100MHz. As the motherboard is only stressed HARDER for a 100
       MHz processor, I think it is unlikely that this has anything to do
       with the motherboard. Moreover a new 120MHz processor is now
       functioning correctly. -- Samuel Ramac (sramac@vnet.ibm.com).
     * CPU temperature. A high speed processor might overheat without the
       correct heat sink. This can also be caused by a failing fan. (My
       personal '486 has a fan that takes a few minutes to get up to
       speed. It probably will never really FAIL because it's now
       decommisioned :-). The CPU can become erratic if "pushed" by
       compiling a kernel. This problem becomes worse if you disable
       "HALT" on the LILO command line. Linux tries to power-down the CPU
       by executing the "halt" instruction when the system is idle. This
       preserves power, and therefore the CPU temperature drops when the
       system is idle. You therefore might not notice this problem when
       simply editing, and it might only surface after hours of CPU
       intensive jobs when the ambient temp is high. If you have a
       Pentium with Fdiv bug, it is advisable to trade it in at Intel.
       They will send you a new one that preconfigured with an official
       Intel-approved FAN. Also note that most normal glues are very bad
       thermal conductors. There is special thermal glue available that
       should be used when a fan needs to be glued to a CPU. -- Arno
       Griffioen (arno@ixe.net), -- W. Paul Mills (wpmills@midusa.net) --
       Alan Wind (wind@imada.ou.dk)
       Intel says that the allowable temperature ranges for the outside
       of your CPU is:
       0 to +85 C: Intel486 SX, Intel486 DX, IntelDX2, IntelDX4 processor
       0 to +95 C: IntelDX2, IntelDX4 OverDrive. processors
       0 to +80 C: 60 MHz Pentium. processor
       0 to +70 C: 66 to 166 MHz Pentium processor
       For information on how to measure this and some confirmation of
       what I say here, see:
       (Especially questions Q6, Q7 and Q13)
     * CPU voltage. Some motherboards allow you to select the CPU
       voltage. Some motherboards badly document the jumper settings that
       manage this. It seems that a 5V processor might still work most of
       the time at 3.3 volts..... -- Karl Heyes (krheyes@comp.brad.ac.uk)
     * RAM voltage. It seems that vendors are preparing for 3.3V RAM now.
       Most memory is still 5V. (but be careful.... 3.3v RAM will break
       at 5V.....)
     * Local bus overloading. At 25 MHz you're allowed to have 3
       VesaLocalBus cards, At 33MHz only two, at 40MHz only one and guess
       what at 50MHz NONE! Some systems start acting flaky when you
       overload the VLB. Even when your VLB isn't overloaded (over the
       limits stated above), the system may loose a few nanoseconds of
       margin by adding an extra VLB card, so you might need to add a
       cache wait state or something after you've added a new VLB
       card.... -- Richard Postgate (postgate@cafe.net)
     * Power management. Some laptops (and nowadays also "green" pc's)
       have power management features. These might interfere with Linux.
       One feature might save a memory image to HD and restore the RAM
       when you press a key. This sounds like fun, but Linux device
       drivers don't expect that the hardware has been turned off between
       two acesses. Some may recover, but others not. Try turning it off,
       or enabeling "APM support" in your kernel. -- Elizabeth Ayer
     * The CPU itself. Several people are reporting that they have found
       nothing to blame excpet the CPU. This could also have been an
       incompatibility between the CPU and the motherboard. A wave of
       reports concerning Intel CPUs has passed (Feb '97). A new wave of
       reports is coming in that are blaiming Cyrix/IBM 6x86 CPUs.
       Although it could indeed be the CPU, it could also be that your
       motherboard is incompatible with your CPU. At least I've seen a
       motherboard manual mention that it isn't compatible with older
       6x86's. My own experience is that these devices aren't bad at all,
       and on a kernel compile I benchmarked a P166+ to be equivalent
       with a P155 (1.3 times faster than a P120).
   RAM timing problems? I fiddled with the bios settings more than a
   month ago. I've compiled numerous kernels in the mean time and nothing
   went wrong. It can't be the RAM timing. Right?
   Wrong. Do you think that the RAM manufacturers have a machine that
   makes 60ns RAMs and another one that makes 70ns RAMs? Off course not!
   They make a bunch, and then test them. Some meet the specs for 60 ns,
   others don't. Those might be 61 ns if the manufacturer would have to
   put a number to it. In that case it is quite likely that it works in
   your computer when for example the temperature is below 40 degrees
   centigrade (chips become slower when the temp rises. That's why some
   supercomputers need so much cooling).
   However "the coming of summer" or a long compile job may push the
   temperature inside your computer over the "limit". -- Philippe Troin
   Memory problems? My BIOS tests my memory and tells me its ok. I have
   this fancy DOS program that tells me my memory is OK. Can't be memory
   Wrong. The memory test in the BIOS is utterly useless. It may even
   occasionally OK more memory than really is available, let alone test
   whether it is good or not.
   A friend of mine used to have a 640k PC which had a single 64kbit chip
   instead of a 256kbit chip in the second 256k bank. This means that he
   effectively had 320k working memory. Sometimes the BIOS would test
   384k as "OK". Anyway, only certain applications would fail. It was
   very hard to diagnose the actual problem....
   Most memory problems only occur under special circumstances. Those
   circumstances are hardly ever known. gcc Seems to exercise them. Some
   memory tests, especially BIOS memory tests, don't. I'm working on
   creating a floppy with a linux kernel and a good memory tester on it.
   Bug me about it again......
   The floppy is not ready yet, but if you have a working Linux system
   you could try my memtesting program. It is available from
   http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/memtest.tar.gz (binary) and from
   http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/memtest.tgz.uue (uuencoded tarred
   gzipped). I'm working on something even better, but you will have to
   wait for that.....
   Does it only happen when I compile a kernel?
   Nope. There is no way your hardware can know that you are compiling a
   kernel. It just so happens that a kernel compile is very tough on your
   hardware, so it just happens a lot when you are compiling a kernel.
     * People have seen "random" crashes for example while installing
       using the slackware installation script.... -- dhn@pluto.njcc.com
     * Others get "general protection errors" from the kernel (with the
       crashdump). These are usually in /var/adm/messages. --
   Nothing crashes on NT, Windows 95, OS/2 or DOS. It must be something
   Linux specific.
   First of all, Linux stresses your hardware more than all of the above.
   Some OSes like the Microsoft ones named above crash in unpredictable
   ways anyway. Nobody is going to call Microsoft and say "hey, my
   windows box crashed today". If you do anyway, they will tell you that
   you, the user, made an error (see the interview with Bill Gates in a
   German magazine....) and that since it works now, you should shut up.
   Those OSes are also somewhat more "predictable" than Linux. This means
   that Excel might always be loaded in the exact same memory area.
   Therefore when the bit-error occurs, it is always excel that gets it.
   Excel will crash. Or excel will crash another application. Anyway, it
   will seem to be a single application that fails, and not related to
   What I am sure of is that a cleanly installed 1.2.13 Linux system
   should be able to compile the kernel without any errors. Certainly no
   sig-11 ones.
   Really Linux and gcc stress your hardware more than other OSes. If you
   need a non-linux thingy that stresses your hardware to the point of
   crashing, you can try winstone. -- Jonathan Bright
   Is it always signal 11?
   Nope. Other signals like six and four also occur occasionally. Signal
   11 is most common though.
   As long as memory is getting corrupted, anything can happen. I'd
   expect bad binaries to occur much more often than they really do.
   Anyway, it seems that the odds are heavily biased towards gcc getting
   a signal 11. Also seen:
     * free_one_pmd: bad directory entry 00000008
     * EXT2-fs warning (device 08:14): ext_2_free_blocks bit already
       cleared for block 127916
     * Internal error: bad swap device
     * Trying to free nonexistent swap-page
     * kfree of non-kmalloced memory ...
     * scsi0: REQ before WAIT DISCONNECT IID
     * Unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at virtual
       address c0000004
     * put_page: page already exists 00000046
       invalid operand: 0000
     * Whee.. inode changed from under us. Tell Linus
     * crc error -- System halted (During the uncompress of the Linux
     * Segmentation fault
     * "unable to resolve symbol"
     * make [1]: *** [sub_dirs] Error 139
       make: *** [linuxsubdirs] Error 1
     * X Windows can terminate with a "caught signal xx"
   The first few ones are cases where the kernel "suspects" a
   kernel-programming-error that is actually caused by the bad memory.
   The last few point to application programs that end up with the
   -- S.G.de Marinis (trance@interseg.it)
   -- Dirk Nachtmann (nachtman@kogs.informatik.uni-hamburg.de)
   What do I do?
   Things to try when you want to find out what is wrong...
     * Disable the cache (BIOS) (or pull it out if it's on a "stick").
     * Jumper the motherboard for lower CPU and bus speed.
     * boot kernel with "linux mem=4M" (disables memory above 4Mb).
     * Fiddle with settings of the refresh (BIOS)
     * Try taking out half the memory. Try both halves in turn.
     * Try borrowing memory from someone else. Preferably this should be
       memory that runs Linux flawlessly in the other machine...
       (Sillicon graphics Indy machines are also nice targets to borrow
       memory from)
     * If you want to verify if a solution really works try the

    cd /usr/src/linux
    make zImage
    foreach i (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9)
      foreach j (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9)
        make clean;make zImage > log."$i"$j
   All the resulting logfiles should be the same. (The first "make
       zImage" makes sure that the dependencies are already
       generated.....) This takes around 24 hours on a 100MHz pentium
       with 16Mb of memory. (and about 3 months on a 386 with 4Mb :-).
   The hardest part is that most people will be able to do all of the
   above except borrowing memory from someone else, and it doesn't make a
   difference. This makes it likely that it really is the RAM. Currently
   RAM is the most pricy part of a PC, so you rather not have this
   conclusion, but I'm sorry, I get lots of reactions that in the end
   turn out to be the RAM. However don't despair just yet: your RAM may
   not be completely wasted: you can always try to trade it in for
   different or more RAM.
   I had my RAMs tested in a RAM-tester device, and they are OK. Can't be
   the RAM right?
   Wrong. It seems that the errors that are currently occuring in RAMS
   are not detectable by RAM-testers. It might be that your motherboard
   is accessing the RAMs in dubious ways or otherwise messing up the RAM
   while it is in YOUR computer. The advantage is that you can sell your
   RAM to someone who still has confidence in his RAM-tester......
   What are other possibilities?
   Others have noted the following possibilities:
     * The current pentium-optimizing-gcc fails with the default options
       only on certain source files (floppy.c comes to mind :-). The
       "triggers" are in the kernel, libc and in gcc itself. This is
       easily diagnosed as "not a hardware problem" because it always
       happens in the same place. You can either disable some
       optimizations (try -fno-unroll-loops first) or use another gcc. --
       Evan Cheng (evan@top.cis.syr.edu)
     * A badly misconfigured gcc -- some parts from one version, some
       from another. After a few weeks I ended up re-installing from
       scratch to get everything right. -- Richard H. Derr III
     * Gcc or the resulting application may terminate with sig11 when a
       program is linked against the SCO libraries (which come with
       iBCS). This occurs on some applications that have -L/lib in their
     * When compiling a kernel with an ELF compiler, but configured for
       a.out (or the other way around, I forgot) you will get a signal 11
       on the first call to "ld". This is easily identified as a software
       problem, as it always occurs on the FIRST call to "ld" during the
       build. -- REW
     * An Ethernet card together with a badly configured PCI BIOS. If
       your (ISA) Ethernet card has an aperture on the ISA bus, you might
       need to configure it somewhere in the BIOS setup screens.
       Otherwise the hardware would look on the PCI bus for the shared
       memory area. As the ISA card can't react to the requests on the
       PCI bus, you are reading empty "air". This can result in
       segmentation faults and kernel crashes. -- REW
     * Corrupted swap partition. Tony Nugent (T.Nugent@sct.gu.edu.au)
       reports he used to have this problem and solved it by an mkswap on
       his swap partition. (Don't forget to type "sync" before doing
       anything else after an mkswap. -- Louis J. LaBash Jr.
     * NE2000 card. Some cheap Ne2000 cards might mess up the system. --
       Danny ter Haar (dth@cistron.nl) I personally might have had
       similar problems, as my mail server crashed hard every now and
       then (once a day). It now seems that 1.2.13 and lots of the 1.3.x
       kernels have this bug. I haven't seen it in 1.3.48. Probably got
       fixed somewhere in the meantime.... -- REW
     * Power supply? No I don't think so. A modern heavy system with two
       or three harddisk, both SCSI and IDE will not exceed 120 Watts or
       so. If you have loads of old harddisks and old expansion cards the
       power requirements will be higher, but still it is very hard to
       reach the limits of the power supply. Of course some people manage
       to find loads of old full-size harddisks and install them into
       their big-tower. You can indeed overload a powersupply that way.
       -- Greg Nicholson (greg@job.cba.ua.edu) A faulty power supply CAN
       of course deliver marginal power, which causes all of the
       malfunctioning that you read about in this file.... -- Thorsten
       Kuehnemann (thorsten@actis.de)
     * An inconsistent ext2fs. Some circumstances can cause the kernel
       code of the ext2 file system to result in Signal 11 for Gcc. --
       Morten Welinder (terra@diku.dk)
     * No or too little swap space. Gcc doesn't gracefully handle the
       "out of memory" condition. -- Paul Brannan (brannanp@musc.edu)
   I don't believe this. To whom has this happened?
   Well for one it happened to me personally. But you don't have to
   believe me. It also happened to:
     * Johnny Stephens (icjps@asuvm.inre.asu.edu)
     * Dejan Ilic (d92dejil@und.ida.liu.se)
     * Rick Tessner (rick@myra.com)
     * David Fox (fox@graphics.cs.nyu.edu)
     * Darren White (dwhite@baker.cnw.com) (L2 cache)
     * Patrick J. Volkerding (volkerdi@mhd1.moorhead.msus.edu)
     * Jeff Coy Jr. (jcoy@gray.cscwc.pima.edu) (Temp problems)
     * Michael Blandford (mikey@azalea.lanl.gov) (Temp problems: CPU fan
     * Alex Butcher (Alex.Butcher@bristol.ac.uk) (Memory waitstates)
     * Richard Postgate (postgate@cafe.net) (VLB loading)
     * Bert Meijs (L.Meijs@et.tudelft.nl) (bad SIMMs)
     * J. Van Stonecypher (scypher@cs.fsu.edu)
     * Mark Kettner (kettner@cat.et.tudelft.nl) (bad SIMMs)
     * Naresh Sharma (n.sharma@is.twi.tudelft.nl) (30->72 converter)
     * Rick Lim (ricklim@freenet.vancouver.bc.ca) (Bad cache)
     * Scott Brumbaugh (scottb@borris.beachnet.com)
     * Paul Gortmaker (paul.gortmaker@anu.edu.au)
     * Mike Tayter (tayter@ncats.newaygo.mi.us) (Something with the
     * Benni ??? (benni@informatik.uni-frankfurt.de) (VLB Overloading)
     * Oliver Schoett (os@sdm.de) (Cache jumper)
     * Morten Welinder (terra@diku.dk)
     * Warwick Harvey (warwick@cs.mu.oz.au) (bit error in cache)
     * Hank Barta (hank@pswin.chi.il.us)
     * Jeffrey J. Radice (jjr@zilker.net) (Ram voltage)
     * Samuel Ramac (sramac@vnet.ibm.com) (CPU tops out)
     * Andrew Eskilsson (mpt95aes@pt.hk-r.se) (DRAM speed)
     * W. Paul Mills (wpmills@midusa.net) (CPU fan disconnected from CPU)
     * Joseph Barone (barone@mntr02.psf.ge.com) (Bad cache)
     * Philippe Troin (ptroin@compass-da.com) (delayed RAM timing
     * Koen D'Hondt (koen@dutlhs1.lr.tudelft.nl) (more kernel error
     * Bill Faust (faust@pobox.com) (cache problem)
     * Tim Middlekoop (mtim@lab.housing.fsu.edu) (CPU temp: fan
     * Andrew R. Cook (andy@anchtk.chm.anl.gov) (bad cache)
     * Allan Wind (wind@imada.ou.dk) (P66 overheating)
     * Michael Tuschik (mt2@irz.inf.tu-dresden.de) (gcc2.7.2p victim)
     * R.C.H. Li (chli@en.polyu.edu.hk) (Overclocking: ok for months...)
     * Florin (florin@monet.telebyte.nl) (Overclocked CPU by vendor)
     * Dale J March (dmarch@pcocd2.intel.com) (CPU overheating on laptop)
     * Markus Schulte (markus@dom.de) (Bad RAM)
     * Mark Davis (mark_d_davis@usa.pipeline.com) (Bad P120?)
     * Josep Lladonosa i Capell (jllado@arrakis.es) (PCI options
     * Emilio Federici (mc9995@mclink.it) (P120 overheating)
     * Conor McCarthy (conormc@cclana.ucd.ie) (Bad SIMM)
     * Matthias Petofalvi (mpetofal@ulb.ac.be) ("Simmverter" problem)
     * Jonathan Christopher Mckinney (jono@tamu.edu) (gcc2.7.2p victim)
     * Greg Nicholson (greg@job.cba.ua.edu) (many old disks)
     * Ismo Peltonen (iap@bigbang.hut.fi) (irq_unmasking)
     * Daniel Pancamo (pancamo@infocom.net) (70ns instead of 60 ns RAM)
     * David Halls (david.halls@cl.cam.ac.uk)
     * Mark Zusman (marklz@pointer.israel.net) (Bad motherboard)
     * Elizabeth Ayer (eca23@cam.ac.uk) (Power management features)
     * Thorsten Kuehnemann (thorsten@actis.de)
     * (Email me with your story, you might get to be mentioned here...
       :-) ---- Update: I like to hear what happened to you. This will
       allow me to guess what happens most, and keep this file as
       accurate as possible. However I now have around 100 different
       Email addresses of people who've had sig-11 problems. I don't
       think that it is useful to keep on adding "random" people's names
       on this list. What do YOU think?
   I'm interested in new stories. If you have a problem and are unsure
   about what it is, it may help to Email me at R.E.Wolff@BitWizard.nl .
   My curiosity will usually drive me to answering your questions until
   you find what the problem is..... (on the other hand, I do get pissed
   when your problem is clearly described above :-)
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