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Next: The PAP Secrets File Up: Authentication with PPP Previous: CHAP versus PAP

The CHAP Secrets File

When it has to authenticate itself with some server using CHAP, pppd searches the pap-secrets file for an entry with the client field equal to the local hostname, and the server field equal to the remote hostname sent in the CHAP Challenge. When requiring the peer to authenticate itself, the roles are simply reversed: pppd will then look for an entry with the client field equal to the remote hostname (sent in the client's CHAP Response), and the server field equal to the local hostname.

The following is a sample chap-secrets file for vlager:gif

           # CHAP secrets for vlager.vbrew.com
           # client          server            secret                addrs
           vlager.vbrew.com  c3po.lucas.com    "Use The Source Luke" vlager.vbr
           c3po.lucas.com    vlager.vbrew.com  "riverrun, pasteve"   c3po.lucas
           *                 vlager.vbrew.com  "VeryStupidPassword"  pub.vbrew.

When establishing a PPP connection with c3po, c3po asks vlager to authenticate itself using CHAP by sending a CHAP challenge. pppd then scans chap-secrets for an entry with the client field equal to vlager.vbrew.com and the server field equal to c3po.lucas.com,gif and finds the first line shown above. It then produces the CHAP Response from the challenge string and the secret (Use The Source Luke), and sends it off to c3po.

At the same time, pppd composes a CHAP challenge for c3po, containing a unique challenge string, and its fully qualified hostname vlager.vbrew.com. c3po constructs a CHAP Response in the manner we just discussed, and returns it to vlager. pppd now extracts the client hostname (c3po.vbrew.com) from the Response, and searches the chap-secrets file for a line matching c3po as a client, and vlager as the server. The second line does this, so pppd combines the CHAP challenge and the secret riverrun, pasteve, encrypts them, and compares the result to c3po's CHAP response.

The optional fourth field lists the IP-addresses that are acceptable for the clients named in the first field. The addresses may be given in dotted quad notation or as hostnames that are looked up with the resolver. For instance, if c3po requests to use an IP address during IPCP negotiation that is not in this list, the request will be rejected, and IPCP will be shut down. In the sample file shown above, c3po is therefore limited to using its own IP-address. If the address field is empty, any addresses will be allowed; a value of - prevents the use of IP with that client altogether.

The third line of the sample chap-secrets file allows any host to establish a PPP link with vlager because a client or server field of * matches any hostname. The only requirement is that it knows the secret, and uses the address of pub.vbrew.com. Entries with wildcard hostnames may appear anywhere in the secrets file, since pppd will always use the most specific entry that applies to a server/client pair.

There are some words to be said about the way pppd arrives at the hostnames it looks up in the secrets file. As explained before, the remote hostname is always provided by the peer in the CHAP Challenge or Response packet. The local hostname will be derived by calling the gethostname(2) function by default. If you have set the system name to your unqualified hostname, such you have to provide pppd with the domain name in addition using the domain option:

           # pppd ...domain vbrew.com

This will append the Brewery's domain name to vlager for all authentication-related activities. Other options that modify progpppd's idea of the local hostname are usehostname and name. When you give the local IP address on the command line using ``local:varremote'', and local is a name instead of a dotted quad, pppd will use this as the local hostname. For details, please refer to the pppd(8) manual page.

Next: The PAP Secrets File Up: Authentication with PPP Previous: CHAP versus PAP

Andrew Anderson
Thu Mar 7 23:22:06 EST 1996