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7.4. Implementation

7.4.1. System Startup

If everything goes well, the virtual console display should look similar to the following example:

Connected to tty1 at 38400 bps.
gnu-linux login:

7.4.2. Add a new user to the system

Log in as root.

Create a new, unprivileged user and new group by appending a line to the /etc/passwd and /etc/group files, respectively. Be sure to use a double greater-than (>>) to avoid accidentally overwriting the files.

bash# echo "floyd::501:500:User:/home/floyd:/bin/sh" >>/etc/passwd
bash# echo "users::500:" >>/etc/group
bash# mkdir /home/floyd
bash# chown floyd.users /home/floyd
bash# chmod 700 /home/floyd

7.4.3. Test the new user's ability to use the system

Switch to virtual terminal tty2 by pressing ALT+F2.

Log in as floyd.

Try the following commands and verify that they work.

bash$ pwd
bash$ ls -l /
bash$ cat /etc/passwd

Try the following commands and verify that they do not work.

bash$ ls /root
bash$ /sbin/shutdown -h now
bash$ su -

7.4.4. System shutdown

Switch back to tty1 where root is logged in.

bash# shutdown -h now